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为什么荷兰城市每年有三天要重新命名? – 译学馆
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为什么荷兰城市每年有三天要重新命名?

Why do Dutch cities get renamed for 3 days a year?

So, I live in the Netherlands
我住在荷兰
In a city called Kaaiendonk
一个叫做Kaaiendonk的城市
In the south of the country
它位于荷兰南部
It seemed, usually this isn’t Kaaiendonk
这座城市通常不叫Kaaiendonk
It’s usually called Oosterhout
而叫Oosterhout
But three days a year it gets new name.
但每年有三天 它会叫一个新名字
Other dutch cities has their name changed, too.
荷兰的其他城市也会更换名称
They even change the signs leading into the town
他们甚至会改动通往小镇路上的路标
But that’s insane
但这也太荒唐了
Think of the tourists
想想游客们吧
It must be double dutch to them.
他们得应付两个荷兰语名字
So why would anyone do this?
那么 为什么要给城市改名呢?
Soliloquy
《独白》
The short answer is it’s done to celebrate Carnival,
简而言之 是为了庆祝狂欢节
the Western festival held just before the season of Lent.
也就是恰在大斋期前举行的西方节日
But of course we can go a little deeper
当然 我们可以更深入一点
The etimology gives us a hint to its purpose
关于狂欢节的目的 词源学给了我们点提示
The word Carnival comes from the Late Latin expression “carne levare”,
“Carnival”来自晚期拉丁语中的“carne levare”
meaning remove meat
意思是“去除肉”
A reference to the upcoming in fasting penance of meat
这与即将到来的禁食肉以赎罪的斋禁有关
And indicating Carnival status
人们认为狂欢节是在斋禁前
The last chance to have a good party
最后一次享受狂欢的机会
The festival itself has pretty Christian origins.
这个节日的起源和基督教密切相关
With celebrations of the linking of the days
它庆祝日夜的交替
and the fertility of crops
和庄稼的丰收
Being adopted by the early church
被早期教会接受的狂欢节
and the same way as the ancient Roman festival of Saturnalia
和古罗马农神节一道
was adapted by christians to form Christmas
被基督徒加以改编后形成了圣诞节
In the middle ages
在中世纪
Carnival was celebrated by performances, games, cock fights
人们以表演 游戏 斗鸡来庆祝狂欢节
And dressing up to mock authority figures.
并乔装打扮来嘲弄权威人物
Within the festivities
在狂欢活动中
the reversal of social norms is an important theme here.
社会规范的颠倒是重要的主题
One of the key traditions of Carnival today
如今狂欢节的重要传统之一
Is the mayor giving the key to the city to a Prince Carnival
是市长把城市的钥匙交给一位狂欢节王子
And this was already practiced in the middle ages
人们在中世纪就已经这么做过了
In any case, the local authorities
无论如何 当地的政府
will never very keen on the mocking
从来都不喜欢这些嘲弄
The festivities were banned by many rulers.
许多统治者都禁止狂欢活动
But traditions,
但几个世纪后
centuries old, don’t disappear as the rulers desire
这些传统没有如统治者所愿就此消失
This is doubly treated
矛盾却加倍了
when the rulers became Protestant
因为统治者成为新教徒
while their subjects remained Catholic
而民众仍信奉天主教
Carnaval, in the form now celebrated in Germany and the Netherlands today,
如今在德国与荷兰庆祝的狂欢节
originates in the German Rhineland.
起源于德国莱茵兰
Under the Holy Roman Empire
在神圣罗马帝国治下
Cologne was important and powerful
科隆市重要而强盛
First as the seat of one of the three spiritual electors
它开始是拥有宗教选举权的三座城市之一
And later as a free imperial city independent of the Archbishopric.
后来又摆脱了大主教 成为帝国自由城市
But with the city occupied by Napoleon
但随着拿破仑的攻占
And later annexed by Prussia
及其后普鲁士的吞并
Its free status was lost, along with its political importance.
科隆丧失了独立自主权和重要政治地位
The citizens wanted to celebrate their glorious past
市民们想要赞美科隆的光辉岁月
and in 1823 organised the first Carnaval parade
便在1823年组织了第一次狂欢游行
to rival the extravagant entries of the Habsburg emperors
以被穿17世纪军装的士兵们护卫着的
and mock the Prussians with the entry of
身穿文艺复兴服装的王子
a prince in renaissance dress,
来借此嘲笑普鲁士人
and accompanied by soldiers in 17th century uniforms
并媲美哈布斯堡君王的华丽入场
These traditions spread to
这些传统传播到荷兰
influence the carnival in the Netherlands.
并影响了荷兰狂欢节
particularly the nearby province of Limburg.
特别是荷兰林堡附近的一个省
Today celebrate the Rhenish variant.
如今这个地方庆祝Rhenish狂欢节
The tradition of changing the name of a city had Dutch origins however,
话说回来 给城市改名的传统起源于荷兰
specifically in North Brabant
具体来说是在北布拉班特
as part of the Burgundian Carnaval
改名也是勃艮第狂欢节的一部分
As far as I can tell,
据我所知
The tradition began in ‘s-Hertogenbosch.
这一传统起源于谢尔托根博什
In 1881
1881年
The bishop of ‘s-Hertogenbosch tried to have the feast banned.
谢尔托根博什主教曾试图禁止举办狂欢节
However, members of the middle class were less keen to see their party canceled.
然而 中产阶级不希望他们的狂欢被取消
They met in a bar behind the town hall
他们便在市政厅后的酒吧里碰头
and concocted a plan.
并制定了一个计划
The fashionable city would be renamed for three days as Oeteldonk
这座时髦城市将有三天改名为Oeteldonk
a lowly farming village.
这是一个低地农村
The parade was held for the first time in the city
这座城市首次举办游行时
and attracted 28,000 visitors
就吸引了两万八千名游客
The plan was wildly successful
狂欢计划大获成功
And in later years
接下来的数年间
the Dutch Railways had to provide special night trains
为了确保夜归的狂欢者安全到家
To bring visitors home safely
荷兰只得开通夜间特别车次
Given this success
见到此次成功
it seems inevitable that other cities would soon adopt the idea.
不久后其他城市自然纷纷效仿
So, what do the names themselves mean?
那这些新名字有什么含义呢
Both Oeteldonk and Kaaiendonk end with “donk”,
Oeteldonk和Kaaiendonk都以donk结尾
The meaning of this is fairly straightforward,
donk的意思很浅显
It’s a dry hill in a swamp.
即沼泽中的干土丘
And indeed surrounding ‘s-Hertogenboschch was once swamp
谢尔托根博什周围确实曾是沼泽
This is after all the lowlands.
毕竟这里是低地啊
The Oetel from Oeteldonk is less clear
Oeteldonk中Oetel的意思并不明确
It’s sometimes said to mean “frog”.
有些人说它的意思是“青蛙”
And a frog is a carnival symbol for the city
青蛙是该城市狂欢节的一个象征
However, it most likely comes from the family name
但它最有可能来自一个姓氏
“Van den Oetelaar”
“Van den Oetelaar”
A common name from the nearby village of den Dungen
这是附近村庄Den Dungen里的常见姓氏
the birthplace of the Bishop whose ban caused the name change to begin with.
使城市改名开始的主教就出生在这个村庄
Kaaiendonk, like several other Dutch cities
像其他一些荷兰城市那样
Includes a variation of “kei” in its carnival name
Kaaiendonk的狂欢节名字中含有kei的变体
This would normally mean “boulder”
它的意思一般是“巨石”
But in carnival it doesn’t
但在狂欢节时不是这个意思
Because of course it doesn’t
因为 当然不是这样
The Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal,
在Woordenboek荷兰字典中
the Dutch equivalent to the Oxford English Dictionary
(它的地位相当于牛津英语词典)
gives an old definition of kei as fool
kei的一个旧释义是愚蠢
A reference to Sir Kay of King Arthur’s Knights of the Round Table,
这与亚瑟王圆桌骑士中的Kay爵士有关
who, according to the Woordenboek
据Woordenboek解释
was halfway between fool and hero
K爵士介于笨蛋和英雄之间
There are too many cities to list them all here.
狂欢节名字中含kei的城市太多 不再赘述
Links below.
下方有链接
But if you could what would you rename your city?
如果可以 您会怎样给您的城市改名?
Let me know in the comments
请在评论区告诉我
And if you are a concerned tourist
还有 假如您是一名游客
don’t worry too much about the signs.
不用太担心改名后的路标
The other side of the road has the city’s standard Dutch name.
路对面会有城市的荷兰语标准名称
for you to contend with.
供您参考
This video was made
此视频的制作
with the help of great people like you on patreon.
要感谢Patreon上像您这样的好人的帮助
The theme tune was by Richard Jones.
主题曲由Richard Jones创作
And as always thanks to everyone who supports the channel.
一如既往 感谢频道的所有支持者

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译制信息
视频概述

在荷兰,为庆祝狂欢节,原城市名会改成一个新名字。本视频介绍了改名的起源以及狂欢节的相关知识。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Islalala

审核员

审核员RC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Avn4gB6UqIc

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