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为什么狗会甩干? – 译学馆
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为什么狗会甩干?

Why Do Dogs Shake to Dry Off?

为什么狗会摇动变干
Why do dogs shake to dry off?
当慢镜头视频中出现一只狗 为甩干身上的水全身摇动着
Who doesn’t love a slow motion video of a dog shaking to dry off, skin folds flapping
皮肤褶皱拍打着 谁会不喜欢呢
every which way as it showers everyone nearby?
但是 你有没想过其中的科学原理是什么呢
But did you ever wonder about the science behind the wet dog shake?
快速变干可能是一个生死攸关的问题 因为动物的毛只有在绝缘状态才起作用
Getting dry quickly can be a life-or-death problem, because an animal’s fur only works
它在干燥的时候 与皮肤表面之间有一层空气
as insulation when it’s dry and able to trap a layer of air next to the animal’s body.
所以 如果在天气寒冷时 皮毛是湿的 就会导致体温降低
So being wet in cold weather can lead to hypothermia.
不断的进化使得这些毛茸茸的动物 为了快速变干
And it turns out evolution has honed that wild shake into the perfect quick-dry method
疯狂地摇动
for furry animals.
在2012年公布的一项研究中 科学家们在亚特兰大公园
For a study published in 2012, scientists filmed 16 mammal species at Zoo Atlanta shaking
用高速摄像机拍摄了16种哺乳动物摇动变干的慢镜头
themselves dry, using a high-speed video camera to get slow-motion footage.
这些动物有老鼠、山羊、老虎、熊
The animals they looked at included mice, goats, tigers, and bears, as well as five
还有5只不同种类和大小的狗
dog breeds in all shapes and sizes.
研究人员从录像中算出了各种动物每秒钟皮肤振动的次数
Analyzing their videos, the researchers counted each species’ skin oscillations per second
并将它们比较
to see how they compared.
他们还在实验室里做了一只湿的仿真机器狗
They also built a robotic wet dog simulator in a lab to study how water droplets are thrown
研究身上的水是怎么被甩到地上的
off a shaking animal in detail.
我想 那更像一只弄湿的仿真小鹿 想像一下 有一个表面粘着白尾巴小鹿皮毛的转盘
Or, I guess, it was more of a wet deer simulator: picture a rotating panel with white-tailed
科学家把它喷湿 然后用不同的速度转动
deer fur glued to it that the scientists could get wet and spin at different speeds.
真实的情况比这要有趣
Not as cute as the real thing.
该研究发现 每一种动物都以它特定的频率摇动
The study found that each particular species shakes at a particular frequency, to balance
来平衡它变干所消耗的能量
how dry it gets with how much energy it’s using.
摇动的动物必须用足够的力克服表面张力
Shaking animals need to generate enough force to overcome surface tension, a property that’s
这是由水分子聚集在皮毛表面引起的
a result of water molecules sticking together, and to surfaces like fur.
力的大小取决于物体的质量和加速度
And force just depends on how much mass something has, as well as its acceleration.
如果你的质量不够大 要产生同样的力就需要更大的加速度
If you don’t have as much mass, that means you need more acceleration to generate the
所以 小动物需要摇动得更快
same amount of force, so small animals need to shake the fastest.
当老鼠每秒种摇动27次时 大一些的动物 像大熊猫
While mice shake as many as 27 times a second, larger animals like giant pandas can get just
可以慢一些 每秒慵懒地摇动4次或5次就可以了
as dry with a slower shake, doing a lazy 4 or 5 oscillations each second.
它们松弛的 不断拍打的表皮也同样起着作用
And all that loose, flapping skin plays a role too.
拍打的表皮可以迅速把水甩掉 有时候会产生很大的力
The way it whips around helps throw the water off quickly, sometimes generating so much
为了保护自己 动物们会本能地闭上眼睛 以免甩到眼睛上
force that animals instinctively close their eyes while they shake to protect them.
该项目的科学家们认为 理解狗摇动变干的原因
The scientists behind this project think that understanding the wet dog shake could help
可以帮我们解决如何将易损坏的设备快速脱水
us figure out how to quickly shed water from sensitive equipment, or even build better
甚至做更好的洗衣机和烘干机
washers and dryers.
但是 为什么人类洗完澡之后不摇动呢
But why don’t humans shake when we get out of the shower?
生物学家们认为 我们不需要快速甩干技巧是因为
Well, biologists think we never evolved to use that quick-dry technique because we don’t
我们没有需要保持干燥的的皮毛
have a layer of fur that we need to keep dry.
我们的皮肤锁住的水分没有动物皮毛那么多
Our skin doesn’t trap nearly as much water as fur does, so it doesn’t take as much
所以蒸发水分所需要的热量也没有那么多
body heat to evaporate it.
其他没有毛的哺乳动物也不需要摇动变干 研究人员拍摄了
And other hairless mammals don’t shake themselves dry, either: the researchers filmed hairless
天竺鼠连同那些狗、老鼠的视频 但湿淋淋的天竺鼠没有摇动身体
guinea pigs along with all those dogs and mice, but the wet guinea pigs didn’t shake
而只是打哆嗦
— they only shivered.
我们很幸运 没有皮毛 我们用毛巾代替
Luckily for us, what we lack in fur, we make up for with towels.
谢谢众筹网站 以及提供问题的赞助者
Thanks to our Patreon patrons for asking!
如果你想观看更多解释狗狗有趣行为的视频 查找我们的视频
If you want more videos explaining cute doggo behavior, check out our video where we explain
为什么小狗总喜欢歪着头
why pups tilt their heads.

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视频概述

人们喜欢看湿淋淋的小狗摇动身体甩掉身上的水的慢镜头,知道其中的科学原理吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jessie

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3m0sCrvqZdQ

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