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为什么猫的瞳孔是垂直的?

Why do cats have vertical pupils? - Emma Bryce

万物之美 美在协调 美在多样 -安伯托·艾柯《玫瑰之名》
Peering into the eyes of different animals,
看这些不同动物的眼睛
you’ll see some extraordinarily shaped pupils.
你会看见一些奇形怪状的瞳孔
But why?
为什么呢?
It turns out that pupil shape is a powerful indicator
瞳孔的形状能够强有力地揭示
of what role an animal plays in its ecosystem.
该动物在生态系统中所扮演的角色
Pupils mark the hollow opening in the iris,
瞳孔是虹膜中央的空心开口
the eye’s band of pigmented muscle.
虹膜是眼内色素沉着的肌肉带
They’re the portholes through which light enters the eye,
他们是光线进入眼睛的入口
where it then strikes the retina and activates light-sensitive cells,
然后光会冲击视网膜并刺激光感细胞
setting the process of vision in motion.
从而产生动态视觉
Pupils are black because most of the light that enters them is absorbed.
瞳孔是黑色的 因为吸收了大部分进入的阳光
Their size changes in response to brightness,
瞳孔大小会根据亮度改变
as well as certain drugs and emotional and mental states
这也取决于特定药物 精神和情绪的状况
but their basic form varies greatly among species.
但各类物种的瞳孔形态都不相同
House cats, for one, are twilight hunters with vertically elongated pupils.
比如 作为暮色猎手的家猫 有着垂直延展的瞳孔
In the dark, these structures expand dramatically, taking in the available light.
黑夜中 瞳孔便会急剧地圆展 以吸收可见光
When it’s bright, they shrink into slits.
天亮的时候 瞳孔就缩成细细的一条
In fact, cat pupils are so flexible that
实际上 猫的瞳孔非常灵活
their maximum area is 135 times greater than their minimum area
能够从窄拓展到宽 多达135倍
whereas our pupils only shrink and expand 15-fold.
而我们的瞳孔只能延展15倍
And because of how the slit pupil takes in light,
根据细长瞳孔吸收光亮的方式
it creates sharp, vertical contours.
就会产生尖细 垂直的瞳孔
When the cat’s brain processes the visuals from each eye,
当猫的大脑处理每只眼睛的视觉
the small but sharp differences between them
两者细微却清晰的区别
help the cat judge the precise distance of its target.
能够帮助猫来判断目标的精确距离
In fact, many other ambush hunters also have vertically elongated pupils
实际上 许多其他的潜伏猎手们也有垂直细长的瞳孔
but mainly those whose eyes are located closer to the ground.
但它们的眼睛大部分离地面很近
This may be because these pupils are especially useful in perceiving objects
可能是因为这些瞳孔非常实用于观察物体
at the relative short distances these animals tend to hunt.
在一个相对较近的距离捕猎
The world looks very different from behind the horizontally elongated pupils
有着横向细长瞳孔的动物看世界也会不同
of many grazing and browsing animals, like goats.
它们大多是食草动物 比如山羊
These pupils, situated on either side of the head,
它们的瞳孔 分布在头的两侧
let horizontal bands of light in
横向吸收光亮
that give the goat a near-360-degree view
使山羊有一个近360度全面的视野
and provide it with sharp, horizontal images.
有着清晰 横向的视觉图像
This helps goats detect any disruption to the horizon
这使山羊能够察觉任何混乱干扰
alerting them to potential predators
提防潜藏的天敌
while still enabling them to see ahead and detect obstacles as they make their escape.
还能让他们在逃跑时 看向前方并探测障碍
In fact, goats always keep their pupils aligned with the horizon,
实际上 当山羊抬头低头时
rotating their eyeballs in their sockets as they move their heads up and down.
其眼球会在眼窝中转动 以保持瞳孔水平对齐
Meanwhile, nocturnal geckos have pupils that shrink into slits
而在夜间活跃的壁虎的瞳孔
studded with pinholes in higher light conditions.
在更多的光照下 会缩成细条带孔状
Each pinhole projects a separate, sharp image onto the geckos retina.
每个孔都会将分离 清晰的影像投射到壁虎的视网膜上
Scientists think that comparing these different inputs
科学家认为 通过对比这些不同的影像
might help the gecko judge distance without having to move.
能使壁虎不用移动就能判断目标距离
And while they might have fooled you,
但它们也有可能会欺骗你
mantises and other insects and crustaceans have “pseudopupils.”
螳螂和其他昆虫以及甲壳类动物有“伪瞳”
These aren’t optical structures;
这些伪瞳没有视觉功能
they’re optical illusions experienced by the observer.
只是观察者的视影幻觉
Mantises have compound eyes composed of thousands of light-sensing units.
螳螂的眼睛有数千计的光感小眼
When some are aimed at you, they appear black
当一些小眼对准你时 它们会变黑
because they’re absorbing most wavelengths of incoming light—
因为小眼吸收了大部分的入光波长
but there’s no actual opening.
但并无实际光线入口
So, why do we have round pupils?
所以 我们为什么有圆形瞳孔呢?
Elongated pupils help sharpen certain dimensions of an animal’s vision.
垂延瞳孔能够提高动物的视觉量度
But scientists think that, for animals like us with circular pupils,
但科学家们认为 像我们这样圆形瞳孔的动物
this is a lower priority.
垂延瞳孔便没那么重要
Instead of seeing some elements of a scene in extreme focus,
相较于在极度集中的视野上察觉一些要素
we see a larger picture in relative detail,
我们的视野会更大更详细
which enables more general skills of observation.
这便使我们具备更多的观察技能
This may be especially helpful for foragers looking for food,
这对觅食动物格外有用
hunters eyeballing and chasing their prey,
使狩猎者能够紧盯并追逐猎物
and social animals recognizing other faces.
让社交动物能够识别各自面孔
As we peer at different pupils, patterns emerge.
看这些不同的瞳孔 规律便会显现出来
And yet there are exceptions.
但是也有例外
For example, Pallas’s cats and mongooses are both small ambush predators,
比如 兔狲和獴都是小型伏击猎手
but the Pallas’s cat has round pupils and mongooses have goat-like pupils.
但兔狲有着圆形瞳孔 而獴有着山羊一样的瞳孔
And we’ve only explored a few pupil shapes.
我们只探索了少许瞳孔形状
Other animals have crescent- or heart-shaped pupils.
有些动物有着新月形瞳孔和心形瞳孔
And the cuttlefish has perhaps some of the most bizarre:
而乌贼的瞳孔可能是最古怪的
their pupils are circular in the dark, but W-shaped in the light.
他们的瞳孔在暗处是圆形的 明处却是W形的
So, what’s going on here?
所以 到底发生了什么呢?
Well, wouldn’t we all like to know?
我们应该都想一探究竟吧?
But are some adaptations just cooler than others?
但有没有更酷的生物呢?
Allow us to introduce you to the aphid,
请允许我向你介绍蚜虫
a bug that poops candy.
一种能排便产糖的昆虫
Or if you think the variety of pupils in the animal kingdom is impressive
或者 如果你认为动物王国多种多样的瞳孔很有意思
wait till you see the variety of genitalia.
那么来看看动物们多种多样的外部生殖器吧
Keep exploring with these videos.
在这些视频里面尽情探索吧

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视频概述

各种动物的瞳孔形状都不一样。为什么呢? 这里有关于猫咪瞳孔的知识,一起来看看!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Arthur

审核员

审核员LG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdrNjHPYKz4

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