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为什么日本人不使用盾牌?

Why didn't the Japanese use SHIELDS?

So why didn’t the Japanese use shields?
为什么日本人不用盾牌呢?
The answer is… they actually did use shields,
答案是……他们实际上用过盾牌
more than pop history would have you believe.
使用的数量远超你知道的通俗历史上的记载
The real history is more complicated,
真实的历史更复杂
and involved blocking bullets with freaking bamboo.
甚至还包括用竹子挡子弹
Way back in ancient Japan, they did use shields.
在很久以前的日本 他们确实用过盾牌
Chinese records mention the Japanese using handheld shields
在中国的记载中 日本人使用手持式盾牌的历史
dating back to at least the 200s.
至少要追溯到3世纪
And the 300s to 500s saw plenty of hot shield-on-shield action.
很多激烈的盾牌对盾牌的战斗发生在4世纪到6世纪
They were mostly rectangular, about 2 or 3 times longer than they were wide,
大部分盾牌是长方形的 长是宽的2倍或3倍
usually made by coating a few layers of leather with lacquer,
通常是在几层皮革上涂上漆
but we do see some examples of iron shields around this time.
但我们确实看到那一时期的一些铁盾
And then soldiers got tired of holding their shields
那时候士兵拿着盾牌很累
and decided they wanted walls that could move instead.
然后决定用移动墙来代替盾牌
Around the Nara Period, when Japan was flirting with having a centralized state and national army,
奈良时代 日本计划建立一个中央集权的国家和军队
we see widespread use of shields that were bigger and could stand by themselves.
大型的盾牌被广泛使用 这些盾牌还能自行立住
Now we gotta differentiate between the handheld shields and these stationary standing shields.
现在我们来区分一下手持式盾牌和立式盾牌
The handheld variety, the Japanese lost interest in,
日本人对手持盾失去了兴趣
but the free-standing type saw action throughout medieval Japan.
但立式盾却目睹了中世纪日本的各种战役
These things were around eye-level height
这些立式盾的高度大概和人眼持平
and they had a folding pole on the back for letting them stand by themselves.
并且在背后有能让其自行立住的折叠杆
You could jam the pole into the ground or use your foot to anchor it.
可以把支撑杆插到地上或是用脚固定住
Long poles are useful, they can be put in many different positions.
长杆非常有用 可以放到任何位置
Shields made of one wooden board were ideal,
只用一块木板制作的盾牌是非常完美的
but usually they were 2 or 3 planks joined together,
但通常盾牌是2到3块板拼接到一起
sometimes even 4.
有时甚至是4块板
These were not lacquered,
这些盾牌没有喷漆
but by the late Kamakura Period,
但在镰仓时代后期
it became hip to paint the crest of your clan on the front, because marketing.
因为商业原因 在盾牌前面画上家族徽章成为了潮流
These free standing shields acted like portable walls.
这些立式盾就像移动墙
Just line them up side-by-side and you had a wall to protect your archers.
只要把它们并成一排就能变成保护弓箭手的墙
If the archers needed to move elsewhere,
如果弓箭手要移动到其他地方
they just picked up the shields and repositioned.
只要拿起盾牌再摆好位置就可以
Don’t underestimate a big piece of wood, I always say.
我常说 不要小瞧了一大块木板
When running away, they could put the shields on their backs to protect against arrows.
逃跑时 把盾牌背到背上就可以保护自己不被弓箭伤到
They also hung these shields on the sides of boats,
他们还会把盾牌挂到船舷上
and even used them as ladders or benches.
甚至用作梯子或凳子
But when guns entered the battlefield, bullets ripped right through the wood.
但当战场上出现枪炮时 子弹能直接打穿木板
Making the shields out of iron helped,
铁做的盾牌有助于挡住子弹
but there were cheaper, more bamboo-ey options.
但可以用更便宜的竹子做盾牌
Sometimes they put in front of the shield wall a row of wet straw.
有时他们在盾墙前放一排湿透的稻草
At first, you’re like that’s dumb,
刚开始你会感觉这好蠢
but they did deflect or at least slow down the bullets.
但它们确实使子弹偏斜了或者至少减慢子弹的速度
Showing no respect to pandas,
对熊猫一点也不尊重的是
they also rolled up bamboo stalks in bundles
他们还把竹竿捆成一束
and used those in place of shields.
用来代替盾牌
Apparently they worked.
明显这很有效
Oh bamboo, what can’t you do?
小竹子 你还有什么不能做的呢?
They even used bamboo bundles in these moving platforms of death
他们甚至把竹子捆在可移动的死亡台车上
where archers and riflemen rained down destruction behind cover
弓箭手和步枪手躲在竹束后边发起一阵阵进攻
while other men pushed them about.
其他人则推着他们前进
The old handheld shields became uncommon,
老旧的手持盾变得不常见
probably due to the weapons the Japanese used.
可能要归功于日本人使用的武器
Let’s talk about the samurai,
我们来讨论一下武士
and afterwards the ordinary foot soldiers, don’t forget about them.
别忘了还有后来的普通步兵
By the 800s, the main warriors on the battlefield were not men on foot,
直至9世纪 战场上主要的士兵不是步兵
but mounted archers, like the Mongols.
而是像蒙古人那样的弓箭手
As the warrior class arose in Japan,
随着日本武士阶级的崛起
they fought in small, skilled units, not vast armies.
他们以技术精炼的小型单位作战 而不是大型军队
This became the reality of war in Japan for a long time.
很长时间里 这成为了日本战争的真实情形
For this warrior class, these samurai,
因为这一武士阶级的士兵
their main weapon was not the sword, but the bow.
他们主要的武器不是剑 而是弓
Swords were actually piss-poor weapons on the battlefield.
在战场上 剑实际是一种糟糕的武器
Aside from a bow, the next best weapon was some kind of polearm like a naginata,
除了弓 最好的武器就是像薙刀的长柄武器
which makes sense because swords were too short to use on horseback.
这也合乎情理 因为在马背上用剑的话太短了
You can think of a sword like a pistol for the modern soldier.
你可以认为剑就像现代士兵的手枪
Ideally, you’d be using your rifle, the pistol is a backup weapon.
理想情况下 最好使用步枪 手枪则是后备武器
If you’re forced to use your pistol, you’re probably in a bad situation.
如果被迫用手枪 那可能就是比较糟糕的情况
For a samurai, when he had to draw his sword,
对于一个武士来说 如果他必须拔剑
it probably meant he fell off his horse,
这可能意味着他摔下了马
a bad situation.
这是一个很糟的情况
So the bow was the dominant,
所以在日本中世纪早期
iconic samurai weapon in early medieval Japan.
弓是武士阶级最重要的标志性武器
Firing a bow on horseback at pokemon is hard enough,
在马背上射中一个宝可梦已经够难了
imagine holding this slab of iron at the same time.
想象一下同时还要握着一块铁板
No, they needed protection of the non-handheld variety,
不 他们需要非手持式兵器的保护
and this came in the form of body armor.
后来就出现了铠甲
Japanese armor optimized for riding a horse and firing a bow.
日本的铠甲是为骑马射箭而优化设计的
There were actually little tweaks to help with bow usage,
铠甲上有一些为适应弓的使用的细微调整
like smooth leather straps in strategic places
比如在战略位置上加上光滑的皮革条
so that the bow string did not get caught in the armor.
这样铠甲就不会被弓弦勾到
Instead of hand shields, they had shoulder armor called osode (大袖).
除了手持盾 他们还有称为大袖的铠甲护肩
If you’ve ever seen Japanese armor,
如果你看过日本的铠甲
you’d know it’s very recognizable. That’s because of how it’s put together,
就知道由于它组拼的方式 它非常好辨认
let me show you.
我来演示一下
They used these little plates, a few centimeters in length,
盔甲采用了这些很小 只有几厘米长的板子
made of rawhide or iron.
它们由生皮或是铁制作而成
They were holey. Like, they had a bunch of holes in them.
它们有洞 小板子上有很多的洞
And these hard working little guys joined together
正是这些非常努力的小家伙
to form armor that was flexible and effective.
组成了灵活有效的铠甲
So let’s go through how an armorer, we’ll call her Erin M.,
那么我们来看一看一个军械师 我们称她为Erin M.
would use these plates of awesome.
是怎样运用这些绝妙的板子的
Armorer Erin starts by overlapping these plates so their holes lined up,
军械师Erin把这些板子叠起来 对齐板子上的洞
then she ties them together with leather or cords.
然后用皮革或者是绳子把它们拴起来
She coats this bottom part with lacquer,
下端的部分涂上油漆
which makes it a single bigger plate
这样就变成了一个更大的板子
and also protects it from the elements.
并能保护其不受恶劣环境的破坏
She creates a few more bigger plates and ties them in a series so that they hang downwards,
在制作了几个更大的板子后 把它们捆成一套垂下来
making a biggerer plate.
组成了一个比之前更大的板子
There were a bunch of different patterns she could have used to lace the plates together,
还有其他一些把这些板子系起来的方法
but this was basically how they made armor, including the osode.
但这是制作铠甲的基本方法 包括大袖在内
Osode basically took the place of handheld shields.
大袖基本上代替了手持盾
They were shields on your shoulders.
它们就是肩上的护盾
They were flexible and fastened to a samurai’s body armor
固定在武士身上 非常灵活
in a way that allowed him to move them in front to block incoming arrows,
通过将大袖移到身前 可让武士抵挡射过来的箭
but when he drew a bow, the osode fell back out of the way.
当武士拉弓的时候 大袖就移到身后了
The samurai’s arms had full range of motion for firing arrows.
武士的双臂就可以自由地射箭
Now what about foot soldiers?
那步兵呢?
Well you may be surprised.
你可能会有些惊讶
They didn’t have the full body armor of samurai,
他们没有武士的整套铠甲
so you would think shields would have offered good protection.
你会认为盾牌会起到良好的保护作用
Thing is, they had to fight both mounted warriors and other foot soldiers.
事实上 他们必须要和骑兵以及其他士兵作战
A sword is terrible for this, it’s too short for both.
只有一把剑的话就太糟了 作战时剑太短了
They mostly used two-handed weapons
他们大部分用的是双手武器
like bows, naginata, kumade, and later on, arquebuses.
比如弓 薙刀 钉耙 还有后来的火绳钩枪
Hard to use handheld shields with those.
使用这些武器时很难再用手持盾
Early on in Japanese history, troop numbers were not high enough to use formations with
日本史的早期 兵力还不足
shields that were effective for European armies like the Romans.
无法像欧洲军队如罗马军团那样组成有效的盾牌编队
That’s not to say they stopped using handheld shields.
这不是说他们就不用手持盾了
Though it was uncommon, we do have evidence that
尽管不常见 但确实有证据表明
they were used from time to time throughout medieval Japan.
手持盾在中世纪日本仍时不时被使用
They were around the size of osode.
它们的大小和大袖差不多
Here’s an illustration that describes how to use such a shield to block a pistol shot.
这是用盾牌挡住手枪子弹的图示说明
Here’s another shield has a pretty cool design.
还有一种设计得很酷的盾牌
It has a male skirt.
上边带有群架
Mail skirt.
裙甲
It has a viewport, and a place to put a candle.
盾牌有一个窗口和放蜡烛的部位
It was probably used when defending attacks at night.
可能是在晚上抵御攻击时用的
The Edo Period saw the appearance of these shields that were only a bit bigger than your
江户时代出现的这些盾牌只比手掌大一些
hand and were used to protect the sword hand while holding a sword.
是用来保护握剑的手的
But all in all, handheld shields were not used often.
但总的来说 手持盾已经不常用了
Early medieval warfare in Japan consisted of small units on horseback,
中世纪早期 日本的战争是由骑兵组成的
where two-handed weapons were king.
双手武器才是王者
For foot soldiers early on, effective formations that made use of handheld shields did not
至于早期的步兵 因为没有足够的兵力
form because they just didn’t have enough troops.
有效的盾牌编队没能组成
So the Japanese leveled up their armor technology.
所以日本人升级了铠甲技术
By the time of the Sengoku Period,
到了战国时代
when you did see massive troop numbers that might have made formations with shields effective,
当有大量的兵力可以组成有效的盾牌编队时
shields had already fallen out of favor.
盾牌早已过时了
There wasn’t a strong motivation to use shields,
已经没有了强烈的动机要去使用盾牌
especially when armor was so advanced
尤其是铠甲已经很高级
and everyone was accustomed to two-handed weapons.
而且大家都已经习惯用双手武器了

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译制信息
视频概述

日本人打仗时为什么不用盾牌呢?真实的历史又到底是怎样?一起来了解日本人不用盾牌的背后原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

爱睡觉的芝麻糊233

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UCKaQyC_i-g

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