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玛雅文明为什么会崩溃? – 译学馆
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玛雅文明为什么会崩溃?

Why did the Maya civilization collapse?

[音乐]
[Music]
在8世纪早期 玛雅文明达到了它的顶峰
By the early 8th century the Maya civilization was at its zenith.
他们建造并养护了规模极其宏大的城市
Building and maintaining cities of such scale that
以至于后来的探险家们假设这些城市
future explorers hypothesized that they must have been built
肯定是由失落的以色列部落或腓尼基人所建造的
by lost tribes of Israel or the Phoenicians.
但仅仅150年后 繁荣的古典玛雅文明经历了
But only 150 years later the flourishing Classic Maya civilization had crumbled,
人类历史上最具破坏性的社会动荡和人口巨变之一 并由此崩溃
undergoing one of the most devastating social and demographic upheavals in human history.
然而直到1697年 玛雅才屈服于西班牙的控制
Yet the Maya wouldn’t succumb to Spanish control until 1697,
这比西班牙征服阿兹特克和印加晚了将近200年
nearly 200 years after the Aztecs and Inca.
玛雅的大崩溃和覆灭
The great collapse and fall of the Maya is a story
是一个充满变化、有胜利喜悦也有悲剧的故事
of change, triumph and tragedy,
古代王座被粉碎 但新势力随之而起
where ancient thrones will be shattered but from them new powers will emerge.
南部低地的玛雅文明经历了某种崩溃这一点无可争议
There is no disputing that the Maya civilization in the southern lowlands underwent some sort of collapse.
而关键问题是——为什么?
The prevailing question is, why?
不幸的是 我们没有玛雅人自己关于崩溃的任何记录
Unfortunately, we do not have any records of the collapse from the Maya themselves.
我们所依赖的石柱上的信息主要是关于神王的生活
The stelae that we rely upon usually focus on the lives of god-kings
而非农业产量
rather than agricultural yields
而可能包含这些记录的书籍也已被烧成灰烬
and the books that may have contained these records have been reduced to ash.
我们所知道的是 在8世纪和9世纪
What we do know is that in the 8th and 9th centuries
联盟开始瓦解 贸易衰退
alliances began breaking down, trade declined
激烈的冲突逐渐开始失控
and intense conflicts spiraled out of control.
最好的例子是我们在之前的视频中看到的
The greatest example of this is the Tikal-Calakmul wars
蒂卡尔-卡拉克穆尔战争
we saw in the previous video.
到公元830年 与玛雅相关的大型建筑几乎全部停工
By 830 AD the large-scale constructions that we associate with the Maya had mostly stopped
在Itzimte 我们看到刻在一根石柱上的
and at Itzimte we see the final date carved on a stela
最后日期是910年1月16日
the 16th of January 910,
这标志着人类最耀眼的光芒之一的
which marked that one of humanities brightest lights,
雅玛古典城市文明结束了
the Classic urban civilization of the Maya was at an end.
跟罗马帝国或赫梯帝国的覆灭类似
Similar to the fall of Rome or the Hittites,
我们知道导致其崩溃的原因不止一个
we know that there is more than one single reason for the collapse.
大多数玛雅文化专家认为有三个主要因素
Most Mayanists agree that 3 major factors
导致了古典玛雅的覆灭
led to the Classic Maya collapse:
战争 环境破坏和干旱
Warfare, Environmental Collapse, and Drought.
我们首先从战争开始讲起
We’ll start with warfare first
因为它似乎是发生最早的起因
because it seems to have the earliest arriving cause.
随着南部低地的战争日益频繁
As these increasingly frequent wars continued to plague the southern lowlands
战争带来的暴力和破坏程度也在增加
the level of violence and destruction they brought increased.
自前古典时期以来 玛雅的国王们就一直在打仗
The Maya kings had been warring since the pre-Classic period,
而现在事态升级
but things had escalated
战事已经影响到普通民众的日常生活
and warfare was now interrupting the daily lives of the common people.
曾为玛雅城市增添光彩的华丽寺庙和宫殿变成了瓦砾
The gorgeous temples and palaces that once glorified Maya cities were turned to rubble.
有些甚至被拆除以建造防御工事
Some even torn down in order to build fortifications,
这些防御工事开始在曾经没有城墙的玛雅城市周围出现
which began to spring up around once un-walled Maya cities.
有些城市的防御墙甚至直接穿过城市中间
Some cities even had defensive walls that passed right through the middle of them.
居民区开始后移
Settlements began to regress,
金字塔尚未建成便被搁置
pyramids lay unfinished,
甚至连国王的尸骨都未被埋葬
and kings unburied.
成千上万难民从农村涌入城市
Hundreds of thousands of refugees poured into the cities from the countryside,
使得人口急剧膨胀
swelling their populations.
历史上 蒂卡尔的人口在大多时期为6-8万
Tikal which had a population between 60-80 thousand for most of its history
在此期间人口可能飙升到了200,000人
may have skyrocketed to 200,000 during this period.
环境问题加剧了这种情况
This was compounded by environmental issues.
正如我们在本系列第一个视频中所讨论的那样
As we discussed in the first video in this series
尤卡坦的环境十分恶劣
the Yucatán is quite a hostile environment
玛雅人在这繁衍发展就需要使用巧妙但又代价高昂的方法
and the Maya needed to develop ingenious and costly methods to thrive within it.
为了给不断增长的城市提供燃料
In order to fuel their ever-growing cities
以及制作覆盖在房子上的灰泥
and to make the plaster that covered them
大片森林不得不被清除
massive swaths of forest had to be cleared.
这里环境中的土壤原本就很薄
This deforestation increased soil erosion in an environment
这种森林砍伐更是加剧了土壤侵蚀
in which soils were already quite thin.
玛雅城邦的成功也播下了它们走向毁灭的种子
The success of the Maya city-states was sowing the seeds of their destruction.
最后的致命因素 是干旱
The final fatal factor, was drought.
玛雅人是最擅长干旱治理的文明之一
The Maya were one of the most adept civilizations when it came to drought management.
他们的水渠和蓄水池仍然散布在被丛林湮没的城市中
Their aqueducts and cisterns still dotted the jungles that have consumed their cities.
然而 公元800至1100年间尤为漫长的干旱
However, the sheer length of the droughts
给他们造成了灾难性的打击
that struck them between 800 and 1100 AD was apocalyptic.
820年至860年发生了长达40年的干旱
There was a 40-year drought between 820-860,
另一次发生在930年左右
another around 930,
然后在1000年至1100年间
and then from 1000 – 1100 there was another,
又发生了一次长达100年的干旱
a 100-year long drought.
该地区已饱受长期战事的摧残
The area was already suffering from incessant warfare.
土壤的生产力比以往任何时候都低
Soils were less productive than ever.
国王们卷入了长达一个世纪的争斗
Kings were embroiled in century long rivalries
现在农民们不得不年复一年地将玉米种子撒到干燥的泥土中
and now farmers had to plant seeds of corn into the dry dirt year after year,
却看不到种子发芽
only to see nothing sprout.
剩下能做的只有诅咒众神
All that was left to do was curse the gods
或是应该帮助他们的人
or the person who was supposed to maintain their favour,
在玛雅文化中那就是国王
which in Maya culture was the king!
既然玛雅国王不能取悦众神降下雨水
Now that the Maya kings had failed to please the gods and bring down the rains
那么人们就可能站起来反对他们
the people may have risen up against them.
血腥的革命的爆发可能是这些城市悲剧性的终曲
Bloody revolutions could have been the tragic final act for these cities
玛雅社会中神圣王权的地位逐渐减弱或消失
and the position of divine Kingship in Maya society dwindled or was cut away.
这所有因素若是单独发生或许能被玛雅人轻易克服
Any of these factors individually could probably have been easily overcome by the Maya.
无休止战争造成的破坏也许可以得到修复
The destruction from endless wars could have been healed,
干旱可以得到控制
drought could be managed,
可以使用新的耕作方法
new farming methods can be developed
也可以实施新的政治制度
and new political systems implemented.
但这些因素合起来便带来了灾难
But all of these together spelled disaster.
错综复杂的各种因素导致了灾难的发生
Complex and compounding factors are what brought it about.
但这次崩溃后的幸存者怎么样了?
But what happened to the survivors of this collapse?
不是所有人都死了
Not everyone died,
南部低地仍有数百万人
the southern lowlands had a population in the millions.
这是考古学的一大谜团
It is a great mystery of archaeology
但我们确实有一些他们向北迁移的记录
but we do have some records of them migrating north.
在此期间 也就是中古典时期
During this period, the Terminal Classic,
奇琴伊察和乌斯马尔等北方城市开始迅速发展
the northern cities such as Chichen Itza and Uxmal began to soar.
于是 在南部低地不再建造纪念碑或巨型城市时
So, while the southern lowlands ceased to create monuments or house giant cities
北部低地实际上却在蓬勃发展
the northern lowlands actually flourished.
玛雅在覆灭后并没有消失
The Maya did not disappear after their collapse
这是一种极其普遍的误解
which is an extremely popular misconception
他们的文明实际上经历了巨大的转变
rather their civilization underwent a massive shift.
奇琴伊察适应了玛雅文明崩溃所引起的政治变化
Chichen Itza rose to become a major regional power.
从而崛起 成为一个主要的地方势力
By adapting to the political changes brought about by the collapse.
通过废弃神王 将其代替为执政委员会
By abandoning god-kings and replacing them with ruling councils
和控制该地区的贸易路线 尤其是盐的贸易路线
and by dominating the trades routes in the region, especially salt,
在10世纪到13世纪 它成为了北部低地的政治中心
it became the political center of the northern lowlands from the 10th to the 13th century.
他们建造了像卡斯蒂略这样的著名建筑
They built famous structures like El Castillo
该建筑在春分和秋分的时候
which during the Spring and Autumn equinoxes,
会出现令人惊叹的蛇蠕动下楼梯的效果
creates an awe-inspiring effect of a serpent wriggling down its staircase.
在11世纪奇琴伊察衰落之后
Mayapan took over the title of regional power
玛雅潘接管了地方政权
after Chichen Itza declined in the 11th century.
但该政权于1448年被废弃
But it itself would be abandoned in 1448
原因跟之前的崩溃类似
for reasons similar to the collapse earlier.
这段时期发生了一系列自然灾害
This period saw a series of natural disasters
战事频增 直到1511年左右才结束
and increased warfare that would only end around 1511.
而那时 西班牙人来了
at which point the Spanish arrived.
自此 独立的玛雅文明开始走向终结
This is the beginning of the end for independent Maya civilization.
要理解这种冲突
To understand this conflict,
我们需要了解西班牙人带来了什么
we need to understand what the Spanish brought.
首先 是该大陆以前从未有过的疾病
First, were diseases previously unknown on the continent.
天花 流行性感冒和麻疹对当地人造成了浩劫
Smallpox, influenza, and measles wreaked havoc on native populations
这可能是人类历史上对生命最可怕的毁灭
in what is probably the most unparalleled destruction of life in human history.
在一百年之内 90%的本地人口消失了
Within a hundred years 90% of the native population was gone.
由于墨西哥的阿兹特克人富有的黄金吸引了西班牙人的注意
While the Maya were the first of the Mesoamerican civilizations to have contact with the Spanish
虽然玛雅是第一个与西班牙人接触的
they were spared for a few years,
中美洲文明 他们幸免于难了几年
as the gold-rich Aztecs in Mexico drew their attention instead.
西班牙人征服玛雅人真正开始于1528年
The Spanish conquest of the Maya only truly began in 1528,
佩德罗•德•阿尔瓦拉多及其兄弟是为先锋
spearheaded by Pedro de Alvarado and his brothers,
而这正是曾经征服过阿兹特克人的那一批士兵
veterans of the conquest of the Aztecs.
拿下玛雅人不是一件短时间就能完成的事
Taking down the Maya would not be a short affair.
与阿兹特克人或印加人不同
Unlike the Aztecs or Inca,
玛雅人中没有可以被绑架的中央权威人物
the Maya did not have a central authority that could be kidnapped.
玛雅人的作战方式也与阿兹特克人不同
The Maya themselves also fought in a different fashion to the Aztecs.
他们在夜间袭击西班牙人的营地
They attacked Spanish camps at night,
在丛林中设置陷阱
lay traps for them in the jungle,
并实施速打速跑的战术
and deployed rapid hit and run tactics.
在那些丛林中战斗是西班牙人以前从未遭遇过的
The fighting in those jungles was unlike anything the Spanish had dealt with before.
甚至在征服者开始入侵之前
Smallpox had reached some parts of the Maya area
玛雅地区的某些地方就已经有了天花
even before the conquistadors began their invasion.
当阿尔瓦拉多兄弟进入那些丛林和城市时
When the Alvarado brothers entered those jungles and cities
他们经过的地方已经是一片末日后的景象
they were walking through an already post-apocalyptic landscape,
因为细菌在他们尚未进攻前就发动了致命的闪电战
as the germs had initiated a deadly blitzkrieg assault before they could.
然而 抵抗仍然很激烈
Resistance was still fierce however.
直到1542年 西班牙人才在该地区建立首都——梅里达
It wasn’t until 1542 that the Spaniards could even establish a capital in the region, Mérida.
西班牙人不得不逐个入侵和征服每个玛雅城市或团体
The Spanish had to invade and conquer each Maya city or group separately.
当他们终于控制了一个地区后
When they finally established control over one region
只要他们动身前往下一个地区 立马就会出现反抗
as soon as they moved to the next it would rebel.
征服者们经历过的无数次的侵略和占领
As the conquistadors underwent their incredible conquest
使得他们有数千名来自墨西哥和玛雅地区的当地人跟随
they were accompanied by thousands of natives from both Mexico and the Maya area,
而这些人有的是参加过之前的征服战争的老兵
some of them already veterans from previous conquests.
某些强大的玛雅家族、当权者和城市
Certain powerful Maya families, rulers, and cities saw the short-term benefit
看到和西班牙人合作可以带来短期利益
that siding with the Spanish could bring.
我们有一幅来自那个时代的布画
We have a cloth painting from the era,
展示了1527年至1529年的战役中
showing these allies assisting conquistador Jorge de Alvarado
协助征服者豪尔赫•德阿尔瓦拉多的这些盟友
in his campaign of 1527 to 1529.
1541年当佩德罗•德•阿尔瓦拉多去世时
In 1541 the Maya were granted a brief respite
玛雅人得到短暂喘息的机会
when Pedro de Alvarado died,
但最强大的玛雅王国
but the most powerful Maya kingdoms
如基切和喀克其奎也快要覆灭了
such as the K’iche and Kaqchikel were also at an end.
没有它们 就不可能有大规模抵抗
Without them a large-scale resistance would be impossible
玛雅人对征服者进行联合抵抗的可能性不复存在
and the chance of a unified Maya resistance to the conquistadors was gone.
最后对西班牙人进行反抗的城市是Nojpetén
The final holdout against the Spanish was the city of Nojpetén,
它由伊察人所控制
which was controlled by the Itza people.
它位于危地马拉北部的一个湖中
It was located in the middle of a lake in Northern Guatemala
防御城墙环绕在其周围
and surrounded by defensive walls.
直到1697年 马丁•德•乌尔苏亚率领
This city wouldn’t be taken until 1697
装有大炮和迫击炮的大型攻击船舰袭击该城市
when Martín de Urzúa assaulted the city
这座城市才被攻陷
with a large attack boat outfitted with cannon and mortars.
这个城市的人们发起了最后一搏
The population of the city attempted a last stand.
他们乘独木舟蜂拥而上
They swarmed the boat with canoes but were
但在试图游泳离开时被击毙水中
beaten back and shot in the water as they tried to swim away.
这座城市于1697年3月10日遭炮轰并被占领
The city was bombarded and taken on the 10th of March 1697.
但是玛雅人的抵抗从未真正停止
But the resistance never truly halted for the Maya.
尤卡坦人于1847年和1860年发动叛乱
Rebellions by the Yucatec Maya in 1847 and 1860
几乎重新夺回了整个尤卡坦半岛
came close to retaking the entire Yucatan.
1910年发生了另外一起反对波菲里奥•迪亚兹暴权的叛乱
In 1910 came another rebellion against the dictatorial regime of Porfirio Díaz
自1994年首次起义以来 萨帕塔主义民族解放军
and the Zapatista National Liberation Army has challenged the Mexican authorities
也向墨西哥当局发出了挑战
since the initial uprising of 1994.
如今 有700万玛雅人居住在危地马拉
Today there are 7 million Maya living in Guatemala,
墨西哥南部和尤卡坦半岛 伯利兹
southern Mexico and the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize,
萨尔瓦多以及洪都拉斯西部
El Salvador, and western Honduras.
有些人融入了西班牙混血文化
Some have integrated into the Hispanic Mestizo culture
而其他人则继续过着更传统的生活
while others continue to live a more traditional life,
仍然使用30多种玛雅语言中的一种
still speaking one of the over 30 Mayan languages
并使用古代历法计算日子
and counting the passing days on ancient calendars.
玛雅人是人类文明中比较奇特的一例
The Maya are an odd example of a civilization.
他们在人类历史中占据了相当长的一段时间
In that they have been a part of human history for an incredibly long time.
他们历经多次跌宕起伏
They have risen and fallen and risen and fallen a number of times.
他们曾被外国势力入侵
They have been invaded by foreign powers
也经历过灾难性疾病
and dealt with apocalyptic disease
但他们仍未真正被征服
yet they still have never truly been conquered
因为他们的文化和精神似乎一直延续到了今天
as their culture and spirit has seemingly continued unbroken until this day.
感谢您收看我们玛雅系列的最后一集
Thank you for watching the last episode in our series on the Maya.
我们将很快完结前哥伦布时期的美洲系列并将介绍其他地区
We will soon conclude our series on the pre-Columbian America and move on to other regions,
所以请您务必订阅我们的频道
so make sure you are subscribed to our channel.
我们想对Patreon网站的支持者表示感谢
We would like to express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters,
没有他们 我们就做不出这些视频
who make the creation of our videos possible.
现在 您也可以通过所示链接
Now, you can also support us
购买我们的商品来支持我们
by buying our merchandise via the link in the description.
这里是《王侯将相》频道
This is the Kings and Generals channel
我们下一期节目再见
and we will catch you on the next one.

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视频概述

玛雅文明崩溃的原因分析

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

XC8849

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxwxTgFVUDE

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