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荷兰人为什么放弃了纽约? – 译学馆
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荷兰人为什么放弃了纽约?

Why did the Dutch give up New York?

The city of New York, the most populous city in the United States,
纽约是美国人口最多的城市
is an international powerhouse of culture, commerce, and diplomacy.
也是国际文化 商业和外交中心
New York has been an important American city since the States became united
纽约自建国以来就一直是美国的重要城市
as evident by the fact that the presidential oath of office took place
总统就职宣誓的联邦大厅便位于纽约
on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City.
纽约的重要性因此不言自明
Before that, being situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbours,
位于世界最大的天然港口之一的纽约
New York was the jewel of Britain’s thirteen colonies
曾是英国13个殖民地中的耀眼明珠
and before that it was the main trading post of the Dutch colony of New Netherland.
更早之前 它是荷兰殖民地“新尼德兰”的主要贸易站
But given its importance, why did the Dutch give it up?
但荷兰人为何会舍弃如此重要的地方呢?
And how did they get it in the first place?
最初又是怎样占领它的?
频道名:《独白》
In September 1609
1609年9月
Henry Hudson, an English explorer whose expedition
由荷兰西印度公司资助的
had been financed by the Dutch West India Company
英国探险家亨利·哈德逊
sailed passed modern day New York up the river
沿着如今以他命名的哈德逊河北上
that now bears his name.
途径今天的的纽约
As he travelled he traded furs with natives
他在游历途中与当地人做皮毛贸易
but after 10 days the waters were too shallow for his vessel to go any further.
但10天后由于水位过浅 他的船舶无法继续前行
He had not found the Northeast Passage to Asia he had hoped
他也未能如愿找到通往亚洲的东北航道
and returned to Dartmouth, England on 7th of November
11月7日 他回到了英国达特茅斯
where passed his logs onto the Dutch ambassador.
并在那里把日志交给了荷兰大使
His voyage was used to establish Dutch claims
他此行的目的是确立荷兰对一些殖民地
to parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland
即现今的纽约 新泽西 宾夕法尼亚 马里兰
Connecticut and Delaware for the colony of New Netherland.
康涅狄格和特拉华的部分地区的所有权
Fur-trading expeditions started in earnest,
皮贸远征正式开始了
but it wasn’t until May 1624 that the first settlers arrived
但直到1624年5月 第一批殖民者才抵达哈德逊河流域
and began their colony on a tiny island at the mouth of the Hudson River
并在河口的一个小岛上进行殖民活动
now known as Governors Island.
这个小岛现名总督岛
The Dutch established a small settlement, trading post and fort on the island,
荷兰人在岛上建了一个小定居点 贸易站和堡垒
but the colonists soon out grew it.
很快小岛就繁荣了起来
The settlers had been instructed by the authorities of the West India Company
西印度公司当局指示殖民者
to be fair and honest with the Indians
对待印第安人要公正诚信
and they purchased the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans
并以价值60荷兰盾的货物
for trade goods worth 60 guilders
从美洲土著手中买下了曼哈顿岛
perhaps the best real estate deal in history.
这可能是史上最划算的房产交易
but these goods were invaluable to the Native Americans
但这批土著人无法自己生产的货物
who couldn’t produce them by themselves
对他们来说是无价之宝
and I remind you that
你要知道
the Native Americans had a completely different concept of land ownership
对于土地主权 美洲土著有着完全不同的理解
and likely understood the trade as a temporary arrangement.
他们很有可能把这个交易理解成暂时的协议
Despite their intentions
忽略荷兰人的意图
they weren’t any better at dealing with the Natives than the other European powers.
他们并不比其他欧洲强国更善于与原住民打交道
The colonists and natives soon came into regular conflict
殖民者和原住民很快就陷入了频繁的冲突
and while the West India Company offered little assistance to the colony
在西印度公司几乎未向殖民地提供帮助的情况下
a series of brutal campaigns all but eliminated
数场残酷的战役几乎尽数消灭了
the Native American tribes from the lower Hudson Valley.
哈德逊河下游的美洲土著部落
The lack of support however left the colonists disillusioned.
但由于缺乏后方支持 殖民者的幻想破灭了
New Amsterdam on the southern tip of Manhattan Island
曼哈顿岛南端的新阿姆斯特丹
became a melting pot with a diverse population
成了多民族人口的大熔炉
in sharp contrast to the homogeneous English settlements going up in New England.
这与英国殖民地新英格兰形成了鲜明的对比
Along with the Dutch there were Africans, Scots,
在新阿姆斯特丹 荷兰人 非洲人 苏格兰人
English, Germans, Scandinavians, French,
英国人 德国人 斯堪的纳维亚人 法国人
Muslims, Jews and Native Americans all building a life in New Amsterdam.
穆斯林教徒 犹太人和美洲原住民都开始了全新的生活
It wasn’t exactly a multicultural utopia.
但它不是真正意义上的多元文化乌托邦
Slave labour was essential for the economy
奴隶劳动对经济来说不可或缺
although in slaves the life here was better than on a plantation
尽管这里的生活要比在种植园的好
slaves were able to learn to read for example
比如这里的奴隶能够学着识字
they were still slaves.
但是他们仍然是奴隶
And there were plenty of prejudice to go around
此外 这里的歧视随处可见
for example in 1654
例如1654年
the pegged legged director-general of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant
新尼德兰独腿总干事彼得·施托伊弗桑特
attempted to turn away Jewish refugees,
就试图禁止犹太难民进入新尼德兰
calling them “very repugnant” and “deceitful”.
并宣称 他们“极令人反感”且“虚伪”
He wasn’t keen on anyone who wasn’t a Calvinist
他只信赖加尔文主义者
but his bosses at the West India Company were having none of it
但是西印度公司的老板们不买他的账
and constantly overruled him.
并且不断否决他的提议
Still by the standards of the day there was relative tolerance.
即便按今天的标准 这里种族关系也相当融洽
Throughout the 17th century,
整个17世纪
the Dutch and English emerged as the world’s principal maritime powers.
荷兰和英国掌握着世界上最强大的海上力量
The rivalry would lead to several wars
这种竞争会引起不少争战
but for our story we need to start in peacetime.
但我们要从和平时期开始讲起
In August, 1664, a handful of English war ships anchored off Brooklyn
1664年8月 几艘停泊在布鲁克林的英国战舰
and aimed their cannons towards the fort of New Amsterdam.
将大炮对准了新阿姆斯特丹的堡垒
The English King, Charles the Second had awarded the lands
英国国王查理二世将包括新荷兰在内的土地
including New Netherland to his brother James, Duke of York,
授予了他的兄弟约克公爵詹姆斯
despite not actually having position of it,
尽管查理实际上并没有土地的所有权
in return for four beaver pelts a year.
作为回报 詹姆斯每年上缴四张海狸皮
And these forces were here to fulfil that promise.
这些军队是来确保这个诺言兑现的
The English commander demanded surrender
英国指挥官要求对方投降
and promised to protect the lives, property and freedom
并承诺保护所有接受英国统治的人的
of all those who accepted English rule.
生命 财产和自由
The director-general tore up the letter and attempted to rally the troops,
总干事撕了劝降书 准备集结军队
but it soon became apparent that the city’s inhabitants had no intention of taking up arms.
但是 很明显纽约城里的居民不想拿起武器抵抗
The lack of support from the West India Company had eroded their goodwill
西印度公司的不支持已经消磨了市民的斗志
and English residences were preparing to take up arms on the other side!
而另一方面英国人正准备发起进攻!
He accepted the situation and surrendered
他认了命 于是他投降了
and the terms were favourable to the colonists,who could stay, with religious freedoms
条款对殖民者有利 他们可以留下来并享有宗教自由
and crucially all public houses remained in use.
而且至关重要的是 所有公共建筑可以继续使用
Without bloodshed the English took over the colony
英国人不流血地占领了殖民地
and renamed New Amsterdam as New York in honour of the Duke.
为了纪念约克公爵 新阿姆斯特丹更名为纽约
This loss of New Amsterdam happened just prior to the Second Anglo-Dutch War,
在第二次英荷战争中荷兰人取得了胜利
where the Dutch emerged victorious.
但恰在此前 他们失去了新阿姆斯特丹
In the peace talks, the English tried to return New Netherland in exchange for Suriname
在和平谈判中 英国人试图用新荷兰交换苏里南
– that the Dutch had taken during the war –
即荷兰人在战争期间占领的土地
but sugar was exceptionally valuable and the Dutch rejected the offer,
苏里南的糖极有价值 所以荷兰人拒绝了这个提议
signing over New Netherland to the English.
把新荷兰签给了英国
The Dutch did briefly recaptured the city in 1673,
荷兰人在1673年的第三次英荷战争中
during the Third Anglo-Dutch War,
确实短暂占领了纽约
but relinquished it at the end of the war and after just one year again
但在战争结束时与仅一年后 两次被迫交了出去
in order to retain the Sugar colony of Suriname.
为的是保住产糖的殖民地苏里南
Under English rule New York prospered with many of the previous colonists staying on,
随着早期殖民者的定居 英国治下的纽约繁荣了起来
and eventually grew into the city we know today.
渐渐发展成今天我们所知的纽约
But the legacy of their Dutch past is still apparent
但是荷兰统治的痕迹依然明晰可辨
the colonists who remained introduced words to English
定居者保留着由荷兰语引进英语的单词
such as cookie, from the Dutch koekje
如cookie来源于荷兰语koekje
both a rose for the English and a tulip for the Dutch
英国的玫瑰和荷兰的郁金香
adorn the flag of the Borough of Queens
一同装饰着皇后区的旗帜
and throughout the city place names with a Dutch origin remain
用荷兰语起的地名依然遍布全城
such as Brooklyn, Harlem, and even Broadway.
像布鲁克林 哈莱姆 甚至百老汇
But this isn’t Name Explain
在此不做专名解释
and over there my friend Patrick has done a whole video on these names
我朋友Patrick做了关于这些专名的一系列视频
so I’ll leave it here and a link in all the usual places. Go check it out.
我把链接放在了这里 去看看吧

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视频概述

简要介绍纽约市的历史,荷兰在纽约的殖民活动,荷兰和英国对纽约的争夺,地名的由来等。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CYxbw1gDXRo

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