未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为何图坦卡蒙法老脑袋扁平?

Why did King Tut have a flat head?

We’re here back in the Human Evolution Lab
欢迎和罗伯特•马丁博士
with Dr. Robert Martin,
回到人类进化实验室
who is curator emeritus of
他是菲尔德博物馆
human evolution here at the Field Museum,
研究人类进化的名誉馆长
and today we’re going to be talking about
我们今天要讨论的
Artificial head binding in ancient Egypt
是古埃及的人工头饰
So uh, Bob can you start by telling us a little bit
所以 鲍勃你可以先给我们讲讲
about what artificial head binding is?
人工头饰是什么吗?
Yes, you know, there are various cultural developments,
好的 我们知道 文化发展多种多样
for example, binding feet in China
比如中国的裹脚习俗
so that you’re getting a permanent change
裹脚是一种永久性的改变
and this is usually done in connection with
它通常发生在一些社会精英
the elite in society or particular groups
和特定群体之间
and so what happens in head binding is that
所以裹头过程就是
the people deliberately set it out from birth
从婴儿出生开始 人们就有意用
to tightly bind the baby’s skull in different ways,
各种方式紧紧地裹住婴儿的头骨
so you can have a band across the crown
有从皇冠上穿过一个带子的
or you can have it from front to back.
也有从前面到后面缠绕的
The baby’s head is flexible for the first couple of years,
婴儿头骨在刚出生前几年可塑性强
but after that, the head shape is pretty settled.
但随着年龄的增长 头型逐渐固定
And so once you’ve done it, it’s done for life,
一旦你裹了头 它便会伴随你一生
and it makes the head look very distinctive.
这让头部看起来很特别
And this is achievable because when the baby is born,
当婴儿刚出生时这是可行的
its cranial bones aren’t fused together.
因为他们的颅骨还没融合在一起
Absolutely.

The key thing is if you look at the skull just before birth,
关键是 你如果观察婴儿刚出生时的头骨
humans have these gaps called fontanelles,
人类有这些缝隙 称为囟门
there’s a major one on the top of the skull
有一个主要的囟门在头盖骨顶部
and there are subsidiary ones on the side.
其余少部分在侧面
Those gaps are there to allow flexibility
这些囟门的存在是为了增加灵活性
because we have such big brains.
因为成人的大脑是比较大的
Our babies only just passed through the pelvis.
而宝宝的只是刚好穿过骨盆
This is a female human pelvis,
这是个女士盆骨
so going through the pelvis it will only go through if it’s facing this way.
宝宝只有顺产头部才会穿过骨盆
– Wow. – And then when it gets part of the way through,
-哇 -然后当它要到达这一面时
it has to turn 90 degrees, and it’s facing backwards.
不得不向后转动90° 并且朝后
We’re the only primates that give birth with
我们是唯一一种分娩宝宝时
our babies facing backwards rather than to the front.
朝后而不是朝前的灵长类动物
But that’s why the bones are so flexible
这就是婴儿头骨如此柔韧的原因
and that allows you to produce this artificial shape by molding.
这让你能通过模型来塑造这种人造头型
Does this impact the fetal development at all?
这对胎儿发育有影响吗?
I mean, does this have a negative impact on any other kind of developmental properties
我的意思是这对任何类型的婴儿发育特性
or things that are happening to a baby?
或其它事情有负面影响吗?
– As long as you don’t reduce the volume. – Sure.
-只要你不改变它的容积 -当然
That would be bad news for the brain.
对大脑来说改变容积是一件坏事
But if you just change the skull shape without changing the volume,
但如果你只是改变头骨的形状而不改变容积
as far as we know, there are no negative effects of doing this.
据我们所知 这样做没有负面影响
Oh, that’s good. And it’s interesting that this has come up with
那就好 有趣的是历史上出现过许多
such notable figures from history like King Tut,
这样的著名的人物 比如图坦卡蒙法老
I mean we have this bust here, this model,
我们有这个半身像 这个模型
which wasn’t just artistically created to have a flattened head,
它不仅只是一个扁平头部的艺术作品
but there is actual evidence that King Tut had experienced cranial deformation.
有实际证据表明 图坦卡蒙法老曾经历过颅骨变形
With my colleague JP Brown we CAT scanned
我和我的同事JP布朗给我们收集的几具木乃伊
several Egyptian mummies in our collection.
一起做了CAT扫描
And then when we are doing our mummy project
当我们在做扫描时
we wanted to get a copy of this reconstruction by the Smithsonian.
我们想从史密森学会得到一个重建模型副本
When it arrived, we unpacked it from the box.
当模型到达时 我们把它从箱子里取出
Oh my word, that is artificial cranial deformation.
我的天 这是人工颅骨变形
And in fact, you can see a kind of saddle shaped
事实上 你可以看到头骨顶部
depression over the top of the skull
有一种马鞍状的凹陷
and then at the back underneath, you’ve got a counterpart.
而在头后的下面 有一个对应的凹陷
It’s interesting because his father Akhenaten
这很有趣 因为他的父亲奥克亨那坦法老王
had a skull shape like that.
也有这样的头骨形状
And Akhenaten was married to Nefertiti
他娶了娜芙缇缇
and it seems that she had this kind of head shape
她的头看起来也是一样的形状
and they had 6 daughters.
他们育有六个女儿
All 6 daughters had head shapes like that.
而6个女儿的头部形状也是如此
And for many years
多年以来
Egyptologists have described this as an artistic style.
古埃及学家一直将其描述为一种艺术风格
Sure.
当然
We don’t have the skulls to check that.
我们没有她们的头骨来证明
But certainly for Akhenaten we have his skull
但是我们有奥克亨那坦和
and we have the skull of King Tut.
图坦卡蒙法老的头骨
They definitely had head deformation
他们肯定有头部变形
and I’m pretty certain that it is artificial.
我很确定那是人为塑造的
Anyway in our mommy project we scanned two mummies.
总之 在我们的项目中 扫描了两具木乃伊后发现
It was a 40 year old woman
那是一位40岁的女士
and a priest son called Minirdis.
和一位叫米勒迪的祭司儿子
When we produced the 3d print from the skull
当我们从头骨上打印出3D图像时
then it became absolutely clear that
我们可以非常清楚的看到
there was a saddle plate shape depression.
一个马鞍状的凹陷
You can see it has an elongated shape
你可以看到他有一个细长的形状
but it’s not extreme. It’s not like King Tut.
但陷得不是很深 不像图坦卡蒙国王
But it’s subtle. But it’s there.
它是很微妙的 看这里
And so presumably the priests were doing this
祭司们这么做大概是为了
to get this distinctive head shape
形成这个独特的头型
at least a thousand years later than King Tut.
这比图坦卡蒙法老晚出现至少一千年
So these are two separate events in time.
所以这是不同时代的两个不同事件
What I’ve seen is that there is no written evidence or record of,
我所了解到的是没有书面证据或记录
like this happening for people in royal positions
表明像皇室阶层或图坦卡蒙法老这样的上层阶级
or higher society like King Tut.
有过这样的裹头仪式
Why do you think there wouldn’t be a record of this?
你觉得为什么没有这方面的记录?
I think this was done in secret,
我认为他们是秘密进行的
this was not something that was to be public knowledge.
这不是公众所知的
Whole idea was to take a small group of people
整个想法是找一小部分人
and artificially change their head shapes
人工改变他们的头部形状
so that they would look different from everybody else
以此让他们看起来与普通人不同
and it kind of spoils the effect if you tell everybody what you’re doing.
如果公之于众 便会失其效用
Do you have any other thoughts about
你对绑头和它在古埃及的流行
about head binding and its prevalence in ancient Egypt?
有什么想法?
Do you have any other examples that you might want to talk about?
你还有其它想说的例子吗?
A big question for me as an anthropologist is,
作为一个人类学家 我最大的问题是
why would so many different human populations
为什么那么多不同的人会
independently hit on the idea of binding their babies’ heads?
自主地想到捆裹孩子的头?
And I’ve mentioned it
我提到过
that at birth you can get misshapen heads inside,
在出生时 你可能会有畸形的脑袋
you can get most of the shapes of people
你可以塑造成大多数人的头型
then use, you get these cone heads
也可以塑造成这些锥头
and you also get skulls that are flattened from front back.
或者这些扁平头
But I think one of the main influences was
但我认为其中一个主要影响
cradle boarding that many societies,
是当时社会生产的摇篮
in many societies, babies are carried around
在许多社会中 婴儿被绑在
strapped to a board on mother’s back
母亲背后的木板上
Typically there’s a bandage around the head
通常婴儿的头部周围有绷带
holding the baby’s head still.
让头部保持静止
Eventually there can produce deformation,
这最终导致头部变形
but you can recognize it,
但是你能看出来
because it’s not regular. It’s asymmetrical.
因为这种变形是不规则 不对称的
Whereas in something like King Tut,
而像图坦卡蒙法老
if you look at this skull is beautifully symmetrical.
你看这个头骨是完美对称的
That is achieved by deliberately binding the head,
这是通过故意捆裹头部来实现的
but it will be a short step from carrying babies around
但是 从带着婴儿四处走动
and noticing that you could artificially
到注意到无意中人为地改变头部形状
accidentally change the head shape to doing it deliberately.
再到刻意地去改变 这将是一小步
I assume there are probably some people who might think that,
我想有一些人可能会认为
there were extraterrestrial influence to the ways
有外星球的影响
that we…you know, the shape of the head
你知道的 影响我们头部的形状
and obviously like there are movies that depict
很明显 就像有些电影描述的是
aliens coming to Earth with cone heads.
圆锥头的外星人来到地球
Do you have any…
你有没有什么
anything to say to dispel some of those rumors
要说的来驳斥关于那些
that might suggest that alien life forms are really at play?
有外星人力量介入使得头部变形的谣言吗?
There are skulls in Peru particularly from Nazcan Paracas.
秘鲁的纳斯卡地画里有详细的关于头骨的记录
They are so extreme that it’s opened the door to people saying
它们头部形状过于迥异以至于人们会说
you know, that this is so extreme, it cannot be human.
这太奇怪了 不可能是人类的
And you know with the Nazcan, people…
你知道关于纳斯卡地画吗
It was particularly convincing,
它对我们的研究特别有说服力
because you have these Nazca lines
因为这些巨大的
which are absolutely gigantic.
纳斯卡地画
And people say, well you can only see these properly from outer space.
人们说 只有从外太空才能看清楚
So therefore, they must be connected with aliens.
因此 这肯定跟外星人有关
So take these strange head shapes and the Nazca lines
看看这些奇怪的头型与纳斯卡地画
and you’ve got the basis for a best-seller.
你已经有了畅销的基础
And quite recently somebody claimed that
最近 有人声称他们从
they had extracted DNA genetic material
其中一个纳斯卡头骨中提取到了
from one of these Nazca skulls,
DNA遗传物质
and it wasn’t the same as typical human DNA,
与典型的人类DNA不同
but they haven’t published the results in a reputable journal,
但他们还未在权威期刊上发表他们的研究结果
and my advice is don’t hold your breath.
而我的建议是不要抱太大希望
The brain scoop is made possible by the Field Museum
大脑能量由菲尔德博物馆和
and the Harris family foundation.
哈里斯家族基金会提供
It still has brains on it.
在这上面还有脑髓

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

详细介绍了古埃及盛行的裹头习俗和人工头饰及其发展,有助于了解到更多的古埃及文明

听录译者

苦桃

翻译译者

Aelen

审核员

审核员XH

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L54f8Ok1Z5w

相关推荐