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为什么俄国宇航员不会返航至海里

Why Cosmonauts Have Never Splashed Down

你有没有想过 在二十世纪六十年代
Have you ever wondered why, in the 1960s,
为什么美国宇航局通常选择海上为降落点 而苏联是陆地?
NASA used splashdown landings and the Soviet Union landed on land?
是的 对此我也很好奇!
Yeah, I was curious about that one too!
好的!为了回答这个问题
Okay! To answer this question,
我们不能只看着陆本身 得先看看别的
we have to look at other things beyond just the landing method itself.
我们得先思考一下
We actually have to start with
两国的发射地点的选择依据是什么
why the launch sites for the two countries are where they are.
美国空军 乃至美国宇航局也
When the US Air Force and, eventually,
开始从卡纳维拉尔角发射物体进入轨道
NASA started launching things into orbit from Cape Canaveral,
这不是随便定的
it wasn’t just an arbitrary choice.
有许多原因
There are a lot of reasons
表明选择这个发射点是很合理的
that this as a launch site made a lot of sense.
工程师们一直都知道
Engineers already knew- they’d known for decades
借助地球自转发射物体到轨道中的
that the best way to take advantage of
最好方法
the earth’s rotation to put something into orbit
是靠近赤道发射
was to launch closer to the equator.
卡纳维拉尔角可能是美国最南端发射点中
Cape Canaveral is probably the southernmost point in the United States
实际能够发射的地点
that actually makes sense to launch,
因为不仅纬度重要
because it’s not just the latitude that matters,
周边区域也非常重要
it’s the area around that launch site that’s really important.
这个发射点沿海又在大西洋西边
Being coastal and having the Atlantic Ocean east of the launch site
发射任何物体都可以借助到地球自转
but anything going into orbit could take advantage of
同时还能发射到无人居住的地方 那就是大海
the earth’s rotation and also launch over unpopulated areas, AKA:the ocean.
工程师们知道
The Atlantic Ocean, engineers realized,
大西洋是个很好的着陆点
was also a really great landing pad. Not only are there
不仅没有撞到人的危险
no people there to hit and potentially injure,
而且比陆地更柔和更好降落
it’s much softer and more yielding than the land.
工程师们知道随降落伞降落在足够
Engineers realized that with a parachute, the ocean
柔软的大海上 对航天员的安全也无风险
was soft enough to land on without risking bodily harm to the astronauts.
而且也没人
It was also unpopulated,
如果有风
so if any winds came and moved the spacecraft over
导致在最后降落阶段航天器移动了
during that last phase of landing,
也不会有撞到人 房子或者建筑物的风险
they wouldn’t risk hitting a person or a house or some building.
远离人群是最好的选择
Being away from all populated areas was the best bet.
同样 降落伞方式是最简单 也最容易的
Also, the parachute method was the simplest; it was easiest.
当你正在处理
When you’re dealing with all the new
水星计划那些全新未知的太空飞行时
unknowns of space flight with the Mercury program,
用降落伞降落在一个安全的地方吧
just use a parachute and land in a safe spot.
此外美国实际上有大规模的海军
Then there’s also the fact that the United States has a massive Navy.
降落在大西洋意味着一艘军舰或者一只船队
Landing in the Atlantic Ocean meant that a Navy ship, or a fleet of ships,
可以在几个小时内找到宇航员
could reach the astronauts within a few hours of landing.
即使没有降落到首选或者备选区
Even if they didn’t hit their primary or secondary zone,
如果降落在意外的地方
if they hit a contingency zone,
国际海域通常都会有船
there could always be a ship in international waters
在两天内到达
less than two days from the crew.
如果你想知道为什么那两天很重要
If you want to know why that two days is important,
我这有个视频可以看
I’ve got a video about it right up here.
然而苏联在
The Soviet Union was in a bit of a different situation
考虑将人发射到太空时就是另一种情形了
when it started looking at launching men into space.
他们发现俄罗斯太靠北了
Russia is very far north and there isn’t a very good
没有一个合适的南部发射点
southern launch site that would take advantage of
可以像卡纳维拉尔角那样利用地球自转
the earth’s rotation the same way Cape Canaveral does
让航天器和有效载荷进入轨道
for getting spacecraft and payloads into orbit.
这就是为什么苏联的发射点不在俄罗斯 在哈萨克斯坦
That’s why the Soviet launch site was not in Russia, it’s in Kazakhstan.
二十世纪五十年代哈萨克斯坦政府把发射点租给苏联
The Kazakh government leased the site to the Soviet Union in the 1950s.
这是苏联控制下最南端的发射区
It’s the southernmost point that was within the Soviet Union’s empire,
但还是相当的靠北
but it’s still pretty far north.
和缅因州的波特兰市差不多同一纬度
It’s on about the same latitude as Portland, Maine.
还被陆地包围
The site is also landlocked.
这不是一个很好的缓冲地点
There isn’t exactly a nice cushion of yielding soft,
发射地周围
welcoming ocean around the launch area
以防发射过程中工作人员不得不中止
in case crews had to abort during launch
或者降落在出发地附近
or to land near where they took off from.
苏联能够接触的海域
The bodies of water that the Soviet Union
都在北极圈
did have access to you are all in the Arctic Circle,
这样对宇航员会非常危险
meaning that they could be very dangerous for cosmonauts
如果他们在海中降落然后被迫脱离航空器
if they splash down and then had to egress from the spacecraft
同时等待救援 但是
while waiting for recovery crews. But the Soviet Union
苏联拥有大块的美国稀缺的空地
did have a lot of, that the United States lacked is land.
大量的无人区
Lots and lots of areas with no people in it
是比较安全的着陆点
that would be a safe spot for a landing.
对于苏联工程师来说
It was simpler for Soviet engineers to figure out
指引宇航员降落到陆地上
how to bring their cosmonauts down on land
比指出国际海域或者大西洋海域的降落点
than it was to figure out navigating international waters or arctic seas
更容易
in a splashdown scenario.
我们都知道这需要很复杂的降落系统
As we know this required a much more complicated landing system.
在前东方号载人飞船时期
See, the cosmonauts in the early Vostok days
宇航员实际上没有随着飞船降落
didn’t actually land inside their spacecraft.
降落伞不能有效降低太空舱的速度
The parachute was still not gonna slow the capsule enough
让宇航员轻松着陆
to spare the cosmonaut from a really hard landing,
所以不得不在落地前分离
so he had to eject
用个人降落伞降落
before landing and land by a personal parachute,
飞船利用自己的降落伞降落
while the spacecraft also used its own parachute.
直到联盟号飞船时期
It wasn’t until the Soyuz days
苏联工程师才将降落系统不断完善
that the Soviet engineers perfected the system
使之在今天能够继续使用
that is still in use with Soyuz today.
制动火箭在降落前一秒发射
The retrorockets fire at the last second before landing,
以使飞船减速 可以在开阔地带平滑着落
slowing the spacecraft so it’s a nice smooth landing in an open field.
尽管如此 听闻很多宇航员说
Although, anecdotally i have heard from a number of
着陆还是很困难的
astronauts but it’s still a pretty hard landing.
但是你知道吗?
But you know what?
我愿意接受硬着陆
I’d take that hard landing
如果我能去太空
if it meant I got to go to space.
不是只有我
This wasn’t a question that only I had,
很多小伙伴也问了
a lot of you guys have asked me about this as well
像这样我多知道一点的
and as such I’ve got a little bit more information
《发现》杂志同伴的博客上会有
in the companion blog post over on Discover,
链接在说明上
The link is in the description,
如果你想多知道一些
so definitely check that out if you would like to know
六十年代着陆事件一定要去看看
a little bit more about landings in the 1960s.
当然 如果你有其他问题或事情
And of course, if you have other questions or other things
想在接下来的节目中看到
you’d like to see covered in future episodes,
也可以在评论区留言
leave those in the comments section as well.
我还想提醒你们
I also want to remind you guys
我现在可以给《Vintage Space》投资了
that I can now take sponsors on Vintage Space.
关于怎么运作有个视频你们可以看看
I’ve got a video about how that works right up here.
你们可以帮我充实你们最爱的《Vintage Space》
You guys can help me make the Vintage Space content that you love so much.
记得订阅哦 这样就不会错过
Be sure to subscribe so you never miss an episode
每一期的《Vintage Space》当然每天太空一见哈
of Vintage Space and of course for space every single day.
关注我的Facebook Twitter和Instagram吧
Follow me across social media on facebook, twitter, and on instagram,
下次见
and I’ll see you guys next time.
感谢观看!
Thank you so much for watching!

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视频概述

由于地理位置的影响,以及技术条件的限制,俄国宇航员着陆的地点方式与众不同,让我们一起来看看这背后的秘密……

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

九霄

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ai7c5KCFV_Q

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