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为何喜剧很重要? – 译学馆
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为何喜剧很重要?

Why Comedy Matters

[笑声]
[laughter]
[大笑声]
[more laughter]
我们总是以为喜剧只是让人放松大笑
We think comedy is just about a relaxing laugh,
但是喜剧演员这项工作实际上
but the job of a comic is, in fact, deeply serious and important
对促进人们心理健康和社会繁荣非常关键而且重要
to the mental well being and flourishing of a society.
在过去 他们被称为“弄臣”
In the olden days, they were called “jesters,”
是官方许可并发薪的的喜剧演员
officially licensed and salaried comics,
他们的工作很明确 就是通过为国王制造笑柄的方式
whose explicit job it was to make jokes for the king
引导他们思考真正重要的事务
as a way of drawing them back to the things that really mattered,
并且使他们免于自大的过失
and saving them from errors of pomposity.
这意味着喜剧可能变成一项必需品——
This suggests that comedy might be a requirement–
就如同找人看牙或做财会工作一样
a bit like having your teeth checked, or doing the accounts–
它们不是在你想看电视时的一些额外选项
not some optional extra when you feel like watching a bit of TV.
喜剧能够帮助我们许多事情
There are a host of things that comedy helps us with.
首先 它是绝望的良药
For a start, it’s a medicine against despair.
许多幽默源于我们生活中最阴暗之事
A lot of humor picks up on the darkest things in our lives–
死亡 焦虑 失败
death, anxiety, failure–
它激励我们强颜挑战 而不是与之和解妥协
but rather than reconciling us to them, it helps us to feel cockily defiant and strong about them.
想象一下委拉斯凯兹献给垂死的救世主的奏曲
Consider Velazquez’s rendition of the dying Christ.
和蒙提·派森的喜剧同时呈现
Then turn to Monty Python’s comedic take on the same situation.
受罚 嗯? 好的 出门 躺在左边 每人一个十字架
–Crucifixion, mm? Good. Out of the door, lying on the left, one cross each.
揶揄的态度并没有否认苦难 它们之间有一种特别的关系
A comic attitude doesn’t deny misery, but it has a very different relationship with it.
啊 伙计 我射中了马文的脸
–Ah man, I shot Marvin in the face.
喜剧能被注入藐视的情绪
Comedy can be infused with a mood of defiance.
面对生存的苦难人们将会嘲笑它们而非屈从
One’s gonna laugh at rather than buckle in front of the miseries of existence.
蒙提·派森的《布莱恩的一生》片尾曲肆无忌惮地陈述着我们存在的劣根性
In Monty Python’s “The Life of Brian,” the closing song brazenly states the worst of our existence.
它充满着了嘲笑 拒绝阴郁
The mood is mocking; there is a refusal to be gloomy.
1940年 英国处于非常不稳固的军事形势
In 1940, when Britain was in a very precarious military situation,
一首嘲讽纳粹领导人的歌曲变得非常流行
a song mocking the Nazi leaders became wildly popular.
敌军的军事力量显然十分可怕 这只是想让他们保持愉悦
The enemy’s power was all too terrifyingly apparent; the point was simply to keep them cheerful,
而藐视现状对于让他们保持前进来说尤其重要
and defiant was centrally important to the task of just keeping them going.
通过嘲弄危险的事 诙谐能够激励我们
By mocking dangerous things, humor can embolden us;
它将那些可怕之事描绘成有益身心的荒诞
it paints what’s potentially very frightening as helpfully ridiculous.
喜剧也是一种对耻辱感的绝妙解药
Comedy is also a great remedy for a sense of humiliation.
生活中充满了严重威胁我们尊严的事情
Life is filled with things which deeply threaten our dignity.
我们从来都没有摆脱成为彻底笑柄的命运
We’re never far from being reduced to complete mockery.
在儿童电视节目系列“小猪佩奇”中
In the children’s television series, “Peppa Pig,”
猪爸爸总是做些看起来可笑丟脸的令人尴尬的事情
a father, Daddy Pig, is always doing things that could be seen as absurd, humiliating, or embarrassing.
在开场时他就制造了令人讨厌的巨大的哼哼声
In the opening sequence, he makes a loud, rather obnoxious grunt.
他有点超重 总是给人很懒的印象
He’s overweight; he can come across as lazy.
这很容易让人对这个角色产生消极的评价
It would be extremely easy to make a very negative assessment of his character.
我们总是对我们自己和他人做这样的事:
That’s the kind of thing we tend to do for ourselves and other people:
预演起诉的情景
we regularly rehearse the case for the prosecution.
尽管在这部动画片里 猪爸爸是一种有很多缺陷的生物
In cartoons, though, this very flawed creature
但却不知怎的有缺陷的同时也尤为可爱
is presented as somehow both flawed and extremely lovable.
他的妻子和孩子非常依恋他
His wife and children are deeply attached to him.
他们确实认为他有一点傻 但他们就是爱他这个样子
They do see him as a bit of an idiot; it’s just that they love him as he is.
在他们的眼中他是一个可爱的傻瓜
In their eyes, he is a lovable fool.
这就是许多喜剧能够帮助我们的地方:
That’s what a lot of comedy helps us with:
它把我们自己——包括
it turns people, ourselves included–
那些在生活中常被看做是笨蛋的人——变成极其有价值的人: 可爱的傻瓜
people who could just be seen as idiots in normal life– into those far more valuable characters: lovable fools.
假设我们走路时碰巧看到贝叟缶提在用树枝洗车
If we happen to walk down a road and saw a man called Basil Fawlty bashing his car with a branch of a tree,
我们会觉得他只是一个用疯狂破坏的方式发泄怒火的糟糕家伙
we’d feel he was just some awful, furious bloke venting his anger in a crazed, destructive way.
我们会认定他是个很讨厌的笨蛋
We’d judge him a thoroughly unpleasant fool.
幸运的是 贝叟缶提并不是在现实生活中 他出现在约翰克里斯的喜剧里
Fortunately, for Basil Fawlty, he’s not in real life, but in a comedy by John Cleese
因此 他不仅仅是一个白痴
and therefore, he isn’t just an idiot.
他是一个经典的喜剧人物 一个可爱的傻瓜
He’s that classic comedic character: a lovable fool.
他的缺点与他那些迷人的品质同在
His vices are introduced alongside some deeply ingratiating qualities.
这个喜剧教会我们真心喜欢上一个在现实生活中我们可能会咒骂的人
The show teaches us to really like someone whom in real life, we might have cursed.
从喜剧创作团队的角度来说 这是个了不起的成就
It’s a remarkable achievement on the part of the comedy team,
有点类似耶稣教我们将罪犯与底层人民想得可爱一些
akin to what Jesus did when he got us to think lovably about criminals and low-lives.
喜剧产生善意的刻板印象
Comedy produces benevolent stereotypes.
如果有人说”你有点像伍迪艾伦” 他其实是在说
If someone says, “You’re a bit of a Woody Allen,” it’s a benign alternative to saying,
“你是一个太让人讨厌的高智商烦人精”
“You’re a deeply annoying over—intellectual worrier.”
你就跟纽约犹太人似的 都是左翼自由主义知识分子 住中央公园西 布兰迪斯大学毕业
–You-u-u’re like New York Jewish, left-wing liberal intellectual, Central Park West, Brandeis University
呃 还参加社会主义夏令营 老爹有本·沙恩收藏画 对吧?
uh, socialist summer camps and uh-h the father with the Ben Shahn drawings, right?
伍迪艾伦教导我们更友善地看待人们的小缺点
Woody Allen’s taught us to look more kindly on the foibles of people
就是那些我们称之为神经病的毛病
we’d otherwise risk calling neurotic whims.
它是对坏的刻板印象的逆袭
It’s the reverse of bad stereotyping,
在坏的刻板印象里我们因强调有些人的缺点而使得问题更加恶化
in which we make a problem worse by emphasizing how deeply awful certain people are.
喜剧演员总能抓住我们的同情心
Comic characters always hold on to our sympathy.
啊嚏!
–ACHOO!
比如说一个同事有点像大卫·布伦特
To say that a work colleague is a bit of a David Brent
并不仅仅是指他们笨拙不安
isn’t merely to point out that they’re tactless and insecure–
也是在重新建构他们的失败
it’s also to re-frame those failings.
因为当我们嘲笑他的时候我们已经开始对他柔和
Because we come to feel tender towards David Brent as well as laughing at him,
我们看到他的脆弱 而不仅仅是白痴行为
we see his vulnerability, not just his idiocy.
我们慢慢发现是他担心自己不被喜欢或尊重
We get good at recognizing that it’s his anxiety about not being liked or respected
而导致他做那些尴尬的事情
that leads him to do all those deeply embarrassing things.
拉里·大卫总是愤怒狂暴
Larry David is always getting angry and abusive.
他非常粗暴好斗 他总是要跟人大吵
He’s incredibly combative and rude. He gets into huge arguments all the time.
但是 他仍有点小迷人
And yet, he’s sort of charming.
我要不喜欢会怎样?
–What’s not to like?
所以 再一次地 我们通过喜剧
So, once again, with the help of comedy,
重新建构了一个原本吸引人但完全负面的刻板印象: 古怪老头
we’re re-framing an otherwise tempting but wholly negative stereotype: grumpy old man.
喜剧化是引导我们对他人有一个更仁善的概念 从而对我们自己亦是如此
The comic move is to guide us to a benevolent conception of people, and hence, parts of ourselves.
喜剧也善于减少权力不平衡感
Comedy also does a great job at reducing power imbalances.
看到强者嘲笑他们自己是大快人心之事
It’s hugely reassuring to see the powerful laughing at themselves.
发现自己可笑之处是成熟的标志
Finding oneself comical is a token of maturity;
它意味着能发现自己的错误还不必过度防御
it means being able to see one’s faults without being too defensive about it.
幽默总能为弱者或至少不那么强大的人以一种机制
Humor often provides a mechanism where by the powerless, or at least, the less powerful,
使得他们向强者提出建设性的尖锐意见
can give constructive but pointed feedback to the powerful.
蒙堤派松在这方面尤为关注
Monty Python was particularly focused on this task.
《哲学家足球赛》就嘲弄了人类思想史上的伟大人物
“The Philosophers’ Football Match” mocks the great figures of intellectual history.
它很好笑因为我们过去一直深受这些”思想土霸”的戕害
It’s funny because we’ve been intimidated so deeply in the past by intellectual bullies,
读了维特根斯坦或叔本华后我们觉得自己好渺小
we made us feel small with our reading of Wittgenstein or Schopenhauer.
但现在他们这些人被演得尽管很认真参赛但踢得还是太烂
And now they’re shown as being completely rubbish at football, and yet seriously involved in the game.
喜剧不仅仅是搞笑
Comedy isn’t just a bit of fun.
喜剧的视角是一个社会的核心需要
The comic perspective is a central need of a society.
它让我们能更好地处理我们的错误与沮丧
It enables us to cope much better with our own follies and disappointments,
工作和恋爱中的烦恼 以及忍受自我的艰难
our troubles around work and love, and our difficulties in enduring ourselves.
喜剧有待于被重构为一个更好社会的核心工具
Comedy is waiting to be re-framed as a central tool in a better society.

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视频概述

喜剧通过嘲弄人生艰难,让我们能更好地与自己以及他人的缺点共处。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

霜霜

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赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mgsErxFEPSE

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