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纯理性数字告诉你为什么去美国读大学这么贵? – 译学馆
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纯理性数字告诉你为什么去美国读大学这么贵?

Why College is so Expensive

大学学费昂贵
College is expensive.
非常贵
Like, really expensive.
尤其是在充满枪支 快餐 学生贷款的美国
Especially here… in the Unites States of guns, fast food, and student debt.
并不是一直都这样的
It wasn’t always this way.
在1980 一所四年制的私人大学一年的平均学费为3500美元
In 1980, the average cost of tuition for one year at a four year private college was $3,500.
在通货膨胀的调整下 到了2016年就涨到了10200美元
Adjusted for inflation, that’s $10,200 2016 dollars.
现在 同样的大学的学费涨到了32000美元—相当于36年前的
Today, that same year of college goes for $32,000—3 times as much as only 36 years
3倍
ago.
所以这背后的原因是什么呢
So what’s behind this?
这是一个又复杂又有争议的问题
Well that’s both a complicated and controversial question.
为了了解学费的涨价
To understand why college has risen in cost we first have to understand why college has
我们首先要明白为什么大学学费一直很昂贵
always been expensive.
你的学费的最大一部分是员工的薪水
The biggest fraction of your tuition goes to salaries.
国家标准下 学生和教员的比例是18比1
The national average student to faculty ratio is 18 to 1 meaning that for every 18 students
相当于每多18个学生就需要一名教员
there is 1 faculty member.
私立大学的教授平均每年赚126981美元
The average professor at a private college makes $126,981 per year.
除以18就是7054美元 看起来还行
Divided by 18 that comes out to only $7,054 which doesn’t seem that bad but you have
但你要考虑到学校的员工不仅仅只有教授
to consider that there’s more than just faculty.
还有教练 花匠 厨师 宿管 维护人员
There’s also coaches, and gardeners and kitchen staff and dorm staff and maintenance
招生员工 营销人员 程序员 保安
people and admissions staff and marketers and IT staff and security guards and college
和校长
presidents.
所有的工资福利加起来高达
All together, the salaries and benefits of all these individuals add up to a whopping
32000美元学费中的24000美元
$24,000 of our $32,000 tuition.
工资如此之高是因为大学的功能和其他行业一样
Salaries tend to be high because college functions similarly to many other industries—following
按照供求关系的规则
the rules of supply and demand.
随着时间推移 大学热门专业变多 因为兴趣的变化反映在了
The most popular college majors vary over time because interests change to reflect changes
教学上
in culture.
问题是 你不能像变魔术一样变出新的教授
The problem is, you can’t just magically create new professors.
到那时候新教授要用20年时间专攻这个领域
By the time new professors go through their 20 years of education and specialize in a
那时候那个专业也许不再热门了 所以当一个专业成了热门 学校会
field, that major will no longer be the popular one so when a major is popular, colleges have
竞争新的教授 唯一的问题就是钱
to compete to get professors and the only thing that really matters is money—money
钱带来新教授 新教授带来学生
brings more professors, more professors brings more students, and more students brings more
学生带来钱
money.
与此同时 一直任职热门专业的教授会获得终身职位
At the same time, professors in historically popular majors receive tenure.
终身职位的想法是为了提升学术自由 全职教授
Tenure is the idea that in order to promote academic freedom, long-time professors should
可以从事这个职业直到退休
have their job guaranteed until retirement.
依法规定教授是不能被辞职的 这可以丰富缺少
With professors that legally cannot be let go, there can often be an abundance of professors
热门专业地区的教授数量
in less popular study areas.
我们还有8000美元的学费没有说明
So, we still have $8,000 of tuition unaccounted for.
学校需要地方教学 它们的基础建设收费奇高
Colleges need places to teach and their infrastructure is rather unnaturally expensive.
教室平常一天只用10小时 一周只用五天 差不多一年四十个星期
Classes usually only run for eight or ten hours a day, five days a week, for 40 or so
而已
weeks a year.
这代表教室只占用了23%的时间
That means that classrooms are only in use 23% of the time.
学校还是要和那77%的
The college still has to pay for the space the other 77% of the time which of course
一起支付
adds up.
另外 学校特别喜欢建特别美的建筑 因为吸引学生
Additionally, colleges really like to build nice buildings because these attract students.
建教学楼的平均价钱因地理位置不一样 但是都在每平米
The average cost to build a building varies by location, but it averages between $115
115美元到215美元之间
and $215 per square foot.
相比之下 麻省分校荣誉学院约354美元每平米
By contrast, U-Mass Amherst’s Commonwealth Honors College cost $354 per square foot,
麻省大学波士顿校区第一学术馆花费了594美元每平米
U-Mass Boston’s General Academic Building No. 1 cost $594 per square foot, and Berkely’s
伯克利的低史普罗教学楼 659美元每平米
Lower Sproul Building cost $659 per square foot.
当然还有其他因素导致了高学费 但是职员和建筑是两个
Of course there are other factors contributing to the high price of college, but staffing
最大的开销了
and buildings are the big two.
这些就是三倍学费的原因
Now for the reason college has tripled in price.
高薪聘请老师去教学生 和低效率的教室使用 是很昂贵的
It’s always been expensive to pay highly educated people to teach in inefficiently
但是 是什么事情让这三年发生了这种变化呢
used buildings so what has changed in the last thirty years?
因为大学比以前更受欢迎了
Well, college is more popular than ever.
在20年间 注册的大学增长了50%
In the last 20 years, college enrollment has increased by 50%.
自从1980年 联邦政府和国家提供给大学的资金达到了历史最高点
Federal and state funding for colleges has actually increased to an all time high since
但是在教育资金增长的同时 平均到每个学生的资金达到了历史
1980 but with the simultaneous increase in students, per-student funding has hit an all
最低点
time low.
1990年 俄亥俄州的旗舰公立大学– 俄亥俄州立大学 可以获得政府提供的25%的预算
In 1990, Ohio’s flagship public university—Ohio State University—paid for 25% of their budget
2012年 它们只能获得7%的预算了
with government money while in 2012, only 7% of their budget was paid for by the state.
随着联邦资金的减少 学生不得不支付更多去
With less federal and state money, students have to pay more out of pocket to make up
弥补这个差价
the difference.
另外 大学已经不在需要千年一代
Additionally, colleges have changed to appeal to the millennial generation.
根据William Strauss和Neil Howe所说 千年一代也就是在1982年到2004年出生的人
According to William Strauss and Neil Howe, the millennial generation—born between 1982
主要有七个核心特征 庇护 自信 团队导向
and 2004—are characterized by seven core traits: they are sheltered, confident, team-oriented,
常规 压力 实现 他们感觉特别
conventional, pressured, achieving, and they feel special.
有时会被叫“草莓族” 千禧一代的人比上一代更加的有雄心和自命不凡
Sometimes called “trophy kids,” millennials tend to be more ambitious and feel more unique
这就代表着她们更倾向相信大学“存在即合理”
than the preceding generation which means that they tend to believe more in “the right
的想法
fit” idea for college.
大学因为增加新的便利设施 被赋予了新的态度
Colleges responded to this new attitude by adding more and more amenities to help them
来帮助他们在众多的学生中立足
stand out to the growing number of students.
这些做了贡献的新设施获得了在高校管理中
All these new amenities required more and more management which contributed to the boom
越来越多的管理
in administration at universities.
根据美国教育部统计 管理员职位的人数在1993到2009年已经增长了60%
According to the US Department of Education, the number of administrator positions increased
是任职教授职位的
60% between 1993 and 2009 which is 10 times faster than the number of tenured professor
十倍速
positions.
正如我之前的那期“为什么坐飞机这么贵”所告诉你的那样
So just as I finished my “Why Flying is so Expensive” video by telling you that
贵的其实不是飞行 做完这个视频 我告诉你的是
flying is not that expensive, I’ll finish this video by telling you that college is
贵的不是学校
not that expensive.
85%的全日制学士学位学生在四年制获得一些
85 percent of full-time degree seeking students at four year universities receive some sort
财政补助 平均补助金徘徊在15,500美元左右
of financial aid with the average grant hovering around $15,500.
这是个巨大的金额 但是我还是承认大部分还是要支付的
That’s a significant amount, but I’ll admit there’s still a significant amount
直到你了解了上大学是你人生中单纯的最好的投资
left over, until you consider that going to college is the single greatest investment
尤其在当今
you can make in your life, especially today.
98%上大学的人的平均工资高于只有高中学历的人
People who go to college earn on average 98% more per hour than those who only have a high
这个数量在这35年内增加了40%
school diploma and that number is up from only 40% more 35 years ago.
所以 我们真把钱花在了什么上面
So given that, what’s the true cost of college?
当你回首过去你的人生 上大学的费用
When you look at it holistically, over your whole life, the cost of going to college is
不是32000美元一年 或者四年128000美元 而是负的500000美元
not $32,000 a year or $128,000 over four years, but rather negative $500,000.
但是如果你跳过这段人生
By skipping the opportunity to go to college, you will forfeit on average half a million
你会在以后挣的钱里损失100万美元
dollars in potential earnings.
去上大学吧孩子们
Go to college kids.
感谢各位收看
Thank you for watching!
我很开心的说这是第一次这个节目由audible.com赞助
I’m very excited to say for the first time ever… this video is sponsored by audible.com.
audible是一个我很仰慕的公司 而且再赞助我之前就已经用了很多年
Audible is a company that I admire a lot and have used for years before this sponsorship.
正如我想象的Wendover Productions的任何订阅者一样 我爱学习而且
As I imagine any subscriber of Wendover Productions does too, I love learning and a great way
读书是一个特别好的学习方式
to learn is through reading books.
问题是我的生活太匆忙 能坐下来看书的时间太少了
The problem is, I live a busy life and rarely have time to sit down and read a book.
所以我选择把听书列入我的日程 在我开车 刷碗
Instead I fit reading into my schedule by listening to books when driving, doing dishes,
还有跑步的等等时候
running, whenever.
Audible有令人惊叹的藏书量 有约250000种类型 还包括了任何时间的最好的纪实文学书籍
Audible has an amazing selection of 250,000 titles including one of the best non-fiction
和我的个人最喜欢的《Freakonomics 》这可以是你的
books of all time and a personal favorite of mine, Freakonomics which can be yours,
永远免费 通过在www.audible.com/wendover注册30天免费试用
for free, forever, by signing up for a 30 day free trial using the link www.audible.com/wendover.
或者 你可以通过免费试用下载任何你想看的书
Alternatively, you can download any other book for free with that free trial.
在这个链接注册免费试用是帮助Wendover Productions最简单最好的方法
Using that link to sign up for a free trial is the single biggest way you can help support
所以我希望你能采纳
Wendover Productions so I do hope you consider it.
除此之外 您还可以订阅此频道 如果您尚未点击
Aside from that, you can subscribe to this channel if you haven’t already by clicking
下方这个按钮 或者在twitter关注我@WendoverPro
the button here, or follow me on twitter @WendoverPro.
你还可以在 Dagen H搜到上周的节目
You can also check out last week’s video on Dagen H—the day Sweden switched driving
在瑞典开车 点这里
directions—here.
再次感谢 下期我们再见
Thank you again and I’ll see you soon for another Wendover Productions video.

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