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为什么气候变化会加重过敏反应

Why Climate Change Is Making Your Allergies Worse

When trees, weeds and grasses mate,
当树木 青草繁殖时
they make a mess.
它们会造成一团乱
Thousands of pollen grains, their reproductive material fly into the air.
它们的繁殖原料——成千上万的花粉 漫天飞舞
Woo, look at that.
哇哦 看那边
and anyone with allergies knows you don’t get too close or else
过敏的人都知道 不该离过敏源太近 否则…
But what is it about that fluffy stuff
但夏天让人打喷嚏的
that sets off the summer sneezes anywhere?
随处可见的毛茸茸的东西是什么呢?
【为什么花粉会使你打喷嚏】
Each year 26 million Americans experience
每年有近二千六百万美国人经受着
an allergic reaction sometimes nicknamed hay fever
一种有时俗称为枯草热的过敏反应
–the culprit pollen.
罪魁祸首——花粉
And to help itself get where it needs to go,
花粉粒可以到任何需要它的地方
pollen grains are extremely light and sticky.
因为它又轻又黏
The wind can carry them for thousands of kilometers
风可以把它们带到数千公里之外
across state lines and over mountains.
穿过州界 越过山脉
You can even find pollen over 600 kilometers out to sea with not a tree in sight.
甚至在没有树木的海外600公里处都会发现花粉
In other words, the sticky stuff gets everywhere
也就是说 黏黏的花粉可以出现在任何地方
and sometimes it sticks to places that it shouldn’t,
有时还会粘到不该粘的地方
like your clothes, car and especially your eyes, nose and lungs.
比如粘到你的衣服 车 尤其会进入你的眼里 鼻孔和肺里
And that is when the trouble starts.
这将引出很多麻烦事
In your sniffling, in your coughing and your eyes are running and itching.
你会流鼻涕 咳嗽 你的眼睛也会疼痛 瘙痒
Dry nose, buggery nose, watery eyes.
鼻腔也很干燥 会有鼻屎 还会流眼泪
But here’s the odd thing about pollen.
但花粉有一点很奇怪
On its own, it’s harmless.
它本身是无害的
It’s not a virus or a parasite that can give you a disease or damage your organs.
它并非能致病或损坏身体组织的病毒或寄生菌
It only becomes a problem when your body sees it as one.
它只在你身体对其有反应时才是个问题
Our body reacts to that energy and it basically the protein and the pollen
我们的身体会对花粉中的蛋白质能量起反应
and for some reason, our body has recognized it as foreign.
还有其他一些过敏原因 我们的身体对花粉是陌生的
your immune system has a merciless procedure for dealing with intruders.
免疫系统会毫不留情地对付入侵者
The first line of defense, our Y-shaped proteins called Antibodies,
第一道防线便是被称作抗体的Y型蛋白质
they’re like a built-in security system
它们就像一个内置的安全系统
that guards your nose, eyes and mouth along with other tissues.
保护你的鼻子 眼睛 嘴巴及其他组织
When they bump into a grain of pollen,
当它们遇到花粉时
they sound the alarm.
就会发出警报
Now, their main goal is to get that pollen out of your system,
此时 它们的主要任务就是去除花粉
which they do by sending a rush of white blood cells to the scene,
安全系统通过释放大量白细胞来完成这项任务
which then produce a chemical called Histamine.
然后产生一种叫组胺的化学物质
Histamine has a few ways to get the job done.
组胺有好几种方式去除花粉
1.It irritates your nose, forcing you to sneeze,
1. 刺激鼻子让你打喷嚏
which blasts some of the pollen away.
这样可以吹走一些花粉
2.It expands your blood vessels,
2.扩张血管
opening tiny gaps between the cells that make up the wall.
在构成防火墙的细胞之间打开微小的缝隙
Opening a path for a squadron of immune cells
为一群免疫细胞打开通道
to squeeze out and attrack the pollen grains.
好让它们追踪并吸引花粉粒
Finally, it tells your nose to make more mucus,
最后 让你的鼻子产生更多粘液
which traps the invader and flushes it out of your nasal passage.
这些黏液裹着入侵者并将其从鼻腔冲走
Mission accomplished.
搞定
Histamine also flushes out of your eyes in a similar way.
组胺还会以同样的方式冲洗你的眼睛
It irritates your eyes, causing them to swell and tear up
刺激眼睛使其肿胀并流泪
and if pollen reaches your lungs,
如果花粉到达肺部
histamine irritates the lining causing you to cough it out.
组胺会刺激内膜让你咳出花粉
The end result, you’re a snotty miserable mess.
最终使你成了可怜的鼻涕虫
And since different plants reproduce at different times in the spring and summer,
由于不同的植物在春 夏两季繁殖时间不同
the assault can last for months.
花粉引起的刺激可能持续数月
But hey, at least now your system is free of that dangerous,
但至少现在你的系统不会受它威胁了
er what was it again? Pollen?
呃 还有什么?花粉?
Now pollen isn’t the only irritant that can cause this type of reaction.
花粉并不是引起这种反应的唯一刺激物
People react to foods.
人们对食物有反应
They react to pollens.
对花粉有反应
They react to chemicals. They react to antibiotics.
对化学物 抗生素有反应
They react to beestings.
对啤酒有反应
All of those are the same type of immune reaction.
这些反应都是同一种免疫反应
However, pollen is one of the most common allergies.
然而花粉是最常见的过敏源之一
But scientists aren’t entirely sure why.
但科学家对原因并不确定
What they do know is that
他们所知道的是
some people have more sensitive immune systems than others.
有些人的免疫系统比其他人更敏感
And that’s based on a bunch of factors, like genetics.
这取决于很多因素 比如基因
When you’re first exposed to pollen and how much of it you were exposed to.
比如第一次接触花粉的时间以及接触的量
All of that influences what your body is going to do
这些因素都会影响
is what kind of reaction is going to have.
你身体的反应
Regardless of how you ended up with allergies,
不管你是怎么过敏的
one thing is clear.
有一点很清楚
They suck!
它们糟透了
But you’re going to be really miserable
你会很痛苦
and some people are very very uncomfortable
还有些人会相当不爽
and I mean it leads to lost work, you can lost school.
这可能导致失业或辍学
Seasonal allergies cost the U.S. 18 billion dollars a year
美国每年季节性过敏导致因工时损失
in lost work hours and medical bills
和医疗开销造成的损失达180亿美元
and there’s more bad news.
还有更糟的呢
Climate change’s making it even worse.
气候变化使情况进一步恶化
A recent series of studies show that over the past 20 years,
最近一系列研究表明 在过去20年里
as global temperatures have climated,
随着全球气候变暖
pollen counts have risen with them.
花粉数量也随之上升
Plus, the earlier and longer periods of warm weather
此外 温暖气候使花粉期开始的更早
have stretched prime pollen season out longer than ever.
持续的时间比以往更久
Yes. If it’s warmer, which is what climate change is doing,
确实 如果气候变暖了 气候变化带来的是
you’re gonna have more of those pollinating species thriving.
你将面对更多授粉物种的繁衍生息
The good news is
好消息是
there are ways to keep the summer sneezes at bay, like antihistamines.
有很多方法预防因花粉过敏而打喷嚏 比如服用抗组胺药
These meds grab onto those irritating histamine molecules,
它们可以抓住那些刺激性组胺分子
preventing them from working, hence the name Antihistamine.
阻止其发挥作用 因此称为抗组胺药
So as the skies cloud with yellow horror dust and pollen counts skyrocket,
所以当恐怖的黄色灰尘和花粉漫天飞舞时
grab a tissue, pop an antihistamine and hope that winter returns soon.
你可以拿起纸巾 服用抗组胺药 祈祷冬天赶快来临
I don’t think this stuff will hurt ya.
我想 花粉便不会再伤害到你

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视频概述

花粉是使很多人过敏的因素,简介引起过敏反应的原因、人们的过敏反应症状及预防。

听录译者

徘徊的小孩

翻译译者

荷兰逗乐

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AF5HMbznZHs

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