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为什么你扛不住肝脏位置来一拳 – 译学馆
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为什么你扛不住肝脏位置来一拳

Why can't your body handle a punch to the liver? - Human Anatomy | Kenhub

This is the liver,
这就是肝脏
and this is what happens when someone punches you in the liver.
而这就是有人打到你的肝脏时发生的事情
[Moaning]
[呻吟]
A well-placed shot to the liver even one that’s not particularly hard
即使力度不是特别大 对肝脏的一次精准击打
can put you in excruciating pain.
也能置你于极度痛苦中
If you’ve yet to experience this sensation in your life,
如果你未曾经历过这种痛苦
well, consider yourself fortunate.
那你真的是很幸运了
A blow to the liver whether a punch, a knee or a swift kick
无论是拳击 膝顶 还是快踢 对肝脏的一次击打
will likely leave you incapacitated.
都可能让你丧失行动能力
In addition to the agonizing pain,
除了这种极度疼痛
you’ll feel breathless, fatigued.
你还会感到难以喘息 精疲力竭
Your legs may give out from under you.
双腿也可能会无法支撑身体
It’s not a matter of willpower or how big or tough you are.
此时无关毅力或强壮的身体
A swift shot to the liver will shut your body down.
对肝的快速一击都会把你撂倒
So why does this happen?
那么为什么会这样?
Why is your liver so vulnerable?
为何你的肝脏会如此脆弱?
If we compare the liver shot to, say, the head shot,
如果我们把击打肝脏和击打头部相比较
you can see that they’re both extremely devastating.
你会发现两种击打都是比较致命的
They both target a vulnerable part of the body,
两者的攻击目标都是身体的脆弱部位
yet the effects of these strikes are actually quite different.
但实际产生的效果却相差很大
When you see professional tough guys like Donald “Cowboy” Cerrone
你会看到“牛仔”唐纳德·切罗内这样的职业硬汉
take a multitude of shots to the head without blinking,
头部受到一顿暴击连眼睛都不眨一下
only to collapse when they’re struck by a single blow to the body.
而身体仅遭受一次攻击就瘫倒在地
It seems kind of strange.
这看起来有点奇怪
However, the thing is when it comes to head shots,
然而 实际情况是 当被击打头部时
well, they don’t really hurt,
他们并没有那么疼
at least not in the moment.
至少在那一刻是这样
When you get knocked in the head, you become disoriented,
当被击打头部时 你会一时失去方向
but you don’t necessarily process the pain.
但却不一定会处理痛觉信息
This is the opposite of a liver shot
而肝脏受到击打时则恰恰相反
where your mind is actually clear,
此时你的头脑很清醒
but your body has completely shut down.
但身体已经被完全击倒了
Now let’s take a closer look at the liver
现在我们来仔细了解一下肝脏
to really understand what’s going on.
看看到底发生了什么
This reddish-brown wedge-shaped organ is the liver.
这个红棕色的楔形器官就是肝脏
It’s located on the right side of the body,
它位于身体的右侧
below the diaphragm and overlying the gallbladder.
位于隔膜下方 并覆盖在胆囊上面
It’s the largest and heaviest internal organ in the human body,
它是人体最大 最重的内脏器官
weighing about one point five kilograms.
重约一点五千克
This is about two point five percent of an adult human’s body weight.
这大约占到一个成年人体重的百分之二点五
The liver is responsible for many important functions
肝脏负责许多重要的机体功能
including the detoxification of harmful substances, protein synthesis, nutrient storage,
包括有毒物质的分解 蛋白质合成 营养物质的存储
and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.
以及消化过程所必需的生化物质的生成
It’s one of the most vital organs in the body.
它是人体内最重要的器官之一
If your liver fails and you don’t get a liver transplant, you die.
如果肝功能衰竭且不进行肝移植的话 你就会死掉
According to a 2013 study on blunt liver injuries,
根据2013年的一项针对钝性肝损伤的研究
if a healthy adult male were to take a direct liver punch to the side of the abdomen
如果一个健康的成年男性在腹腔一侧
with a minimum punch speed of five meters per second,
被最小速度为5m/s的拳头直接击中肝脏
it would be enough to cause liver injury.
其肝脏将足以因之受损
To put this in perspective, the average adult male is likely capable
客观来说 一般的成年男性都能
of punching at a speed of six meters per second
打出速度为6m/s的一拳
with estimates of pro boxers or MMA fighters
而职业拳击手或MMA格斗员
punching over twice that.
估计能以两倍于此的速度出拳
Here you can see the extent of liver damage
在这里你可以看到肝脏
caused by a six meter-per-second liver punch.
在6m/s的击打下的受损程度
A comparison of the simulated result on the right with the victim on the left
右侧的模拟结果和左侧的受损肝脏之间的对比
shows the severity of such an injury.
展示了这种损害的严重性
A perfectly placed liver shot with even moderate power and speed could rupture a liver.
即使是一般的力量和速度 一次精准的对肝打击也会造成肝脏破裂
This is a fight between former UFC heavyweight champion
这是一场前UFC重量级冠军
Bas Rutten – and expert in liver shots
同时也是“爆肝专家”的Bas Rotten
and Jason DeLucia.
与Jason DeLucia之间的搏斗
This shot right here
此处的一次攻击
is the famous shot that ruptured DeLucia’s liver.
就是打裂DeLucia肝脏的著名一击
Okay, injury or not, the liver shot is still going to take you out,
无论受伤与否 被击中肝脏都将使你倒下
at least temporarily.
至少暂时是这样
And the cause of this sudden paralysis isn’t just due to extreme pain.
而这种突然的无法行动并不是源于极度疼痛
Physiologically, there’s actually more going on.
从生理上来讲 许多事情正在发生
When a punch initially lands on the liver,
当最初的击打落在肝脏上时
there are dynamic pressure changes in the organ itself.
肝脏自身不断产生压力的变化
The liver is flexible.
肝脏具有弹性
It’s pliable, so if one side of the liver gets compressed with a punch,
它是柔韧的 所以当肝脏一侧因击打而压缩变形时
the other side will get stretched.
另一侧就会伸张出去
There are a lot of nerve fibers in the capsule around the liver
在肝包膜附近有许多神经纤维
linking it directly to the autonomic nervous system.
直接连接到自主神经系统
So, as the liver gets compressed and stretched from the impact,
所以 肝脏受到压力被挤压和伸张时
you get nerve signals that move along this pathway.
你会收到沿此传来的神经信号
The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions
控制无意识活动的神经系统
is the autonomic nervous system or ANS.
即为自主神经系统(ANS)
Now, the longest nerve of the ANS is the vagus nerve,
自主神经系统中最长的神经是迷走神经
and when this gets stimulated,
当它受到刺激时
a series of events start to unfold.
将会产生一系列的反应
First, there’s a sudden dilation or widening of blood vessels all over your body
首先 除了脑部之外的全身血管
with the exception of the brain.
会快速膨大扩张
Normally when this happens, your heart rate increases
正常来说 此时 你的心率会增加
to maintain blood pressure to the cardiovascular system,
以维持心血管系统的血压
but in this case, the stimulation of the vagal nerve network
但同时 被激活的迷走神经网络
causes a decrease in heart rate.
会导致心率的降低
This happens at the same time as the dilation of blood vessels
正是因为血管扩张的同时发生这种机制
so the blood pressure drops dramatically.
所以血压会急剧下降
In a last-ditch effort to control the blood pressure and maintain blood flow to the brain
为尽最大努力控制血压并保证脑部血液供流
–since the functioning brain is vital for life–
-因为脑功能的健全对生命至关重要-
the body tries to force itself into a horizontal or supine position.
身体将试图迫使自身处于水平位或仰卧位
This survival tactic is the reason for the collapse,
倒地策略实际上是保命的方法
and if the liver shot is severe enough,
如果肝脏受到足够严重的击打
you could also lose consciousness.
你甚至会失去意识
In a professional fight setting, all of this is amplified due to the additional elements
在专业的搏斗中 所有的这些机制都会
of pain, stress and dehydration from the weight cut.
因为疼痛 紧张 和减重带来的脱水被放大
Now you may be asking yourself:
现在你可能会产生疑惑:
why this doesn’t seem to happen with other internal organs?
为何这种机制不会作用于其它内脏呢?
But the truth is, it does.
而事实是 也会如此
Many organs are susceptible in the same way.
许多器官对此也同样敏感
It’s just that with the liver being the largest organ in the abdomen
只不过因为肝脏是腹腔中最大的器官
and situated in a relatively precarious position
并且它在胸腔下缘略微突出来
that is protruding slightly from under the rib cage,
位于一个相对不安全的位置
it becomes a larger and more exposed target.
所以是一个更大更加暴露的打击对象
The kidneys, in comparison,
相比之下 两颗肾脏
are a lot less vulnerable due to the surrounding muscle mass
由于受到周围的肌肉群覆盖以及
as well as being hidden well within the rib cage.
藏在胸腔中而不易受到损伤
As we’ve evolved over time, the role of the liver has increased in importance
随着人体不断进化 肝脏扮演的角色愈加重要
leading to an increase in size.
导致其体积不断增大
Why the rib cage didn’t expand to fully protect the liver, a vital organ,
而肋骨没有扩大到足以完全保护肝脏这一重要器官的原因
remains unclear.
仍有待弄清
But as we all know, the human body isn’t a perfect system.
而我们都知道 人体并不是个完美的系统
At the end of the day, if you get punched in the liver,
最后 如果你的肝脏被击中
you will go down.
你便会倒地
But, as defenseless as you may feel,
但是 在感觉对手放下防备时
perhaps there’s still a chance that you’re the one
或许你仍有机会成为
who will deliver the final blow.
打出最后一击的那一个
Thanks for watching.
感谢观看
We hope you enjoyed this topic and,
希望你能喜欢这一话题
if you’ve ever been punched or kicked in the liver,
当然如果你曾被打中或踢中肝脏
tell us about it in the comments below.
在下方的评论中告诉我们吧
Give this video a thumbs up, share it,
欢迎大家点赞 分享本视频
and if you want to learn more about the fascinating liver,
如果想了解更多关于肝脏的趣事
you can go ahead and check out the Kenhub website.
你可以前往Kenhub网站浏览
Alright, guys, until next time.
好的各位 我们下次见

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视频概述

肝脏其实很脆弱

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVZbEE0nx70

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