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为什么不能用肉类做堆肥?

Why Can't You Compost Meat?

Why can’t you compost meat?
为什么不能用肉类做堆肥?
If you have a composting service at work or school,
如果你所在的公司或学校里会做堆肥
you might have noticed an odd pattern.
你可能会注意到一个奇怪的现象
They can take as many apple cores and paper towels as you care to give them,
你给的的苹果核和纸巾他们几乎都会收下
but they will not accept meat or dairy.
但他们不会收肉和奶制品类
And if you compost at home, you might avoid adding these things to your pile.
在家做堆肥时 你可能需要避开这些东西
But the problem isn’t that it’s hard to break these things down,
但问题不在于这些东西很难分解
the problem is that it’s easy, too easy.
而在于它们太容易分解
Composting is a way to convert things like food scraps and yard trimmings into fertilizer,
堆肥是将食物残渣和植物废料转化为肥料的方法
instead of sending those things to landfills.
而不是把它们送去垃圾场填埋
So it might seem annoying that you can’t toss all your leftovers in,
不能把剩菜全都倒进去做堆肥 可能有点烦人
and it turns out you can—if you’re careful.
不过倘若你小心操作 其实也可以
some of the problems with composting meat are practical
用肉制作堆肥时 会出现一些比较实际的问题
It can attract pests,
它会引来虫子
and you probably don’t want to have to fight off
还有 你应该不想在自己院子里
a bunch of rats and raccoons in your own backyard.
陷入与一群老鼠和浣熊的搏斗中
plus, some folks worry about diseases-causing bacteria
而且 有些人会担心在堆肥中
being able to grow in home compost piles.
有致病菌产生
But the solution there is just to make sure the pile reaches a high enough temperature
但只要让堆肥达到足够高的温度
to kill those pathogens off.
就可以杀死这些病原体
Temperature is a super important factor in composting
温度是堆肥过程中的关键因素
anyhow, one any home composter should be keeping an eye on.
总之 所有在家制作堆肥的人都应该注意这点
But the weirdest reason
但最奇怪的理由是
it’s tough to compost meat and dairy
把要肉和奶制品制成堆肥 是很困难的
is how delicious soil microbes find animal protein.
因为土壤微生物会发现动物蛋白非常“美味”
And even though composting is all about getting friendly soil organisms
尽管堆肥是为让土壤微生物
to break stuff down for us,
来帮我们分解物质
we don’t want them to get too excited.
但我们并不希望它们太活跃
Good composting relies on the ratio of two elements:
良好的堆肥取决于两种元素的比例:
carbon and nitrogen.
碳和氮
Carbon makes up the chemical foundation for practically all of life’s favorite molecules
碳几乎是所有生物体中常见分子的基本化学构成
including proteins,
包括蛋白质
but proteins also contain a lot of nitrogen.
但蛋白质同样也含有大量的氮
Which means that animal products, which are more densely packed with proteins than veggies,
也就是说动物产品 比蔬菜含有更多的蛋白质
contain more nitrogen.
包含更多的氮元素
Experts have determined that the best ratio of carbon to nitrogen in compost
专家表示 堆肥中碳氮的最佳比例
is somewhere between twenty and thirty to one.
在20到30比1之间
Veggie scraps are generally in that sweet spot at twenty-five to one,
蔬果一般都在25比1这个最佳点
but something like a chicken carcass is more like five to one.
但肉类 比如鸡肉一般都是5比1
And when bacteria see all that nutritious nitrogen in a compost pile,
当细菌发现堆肥中的养分 氮元素时
they go a little bonkers,
它们会变得过于活跃
they start to grow really fast.
开始快速繁殖
That uses up oxygen,
并耗尽了氧气
and when the bacteria use up all the oxygen in the pile,
当细菌耗尽了堆肥中的所有氧气后
that favors the growth of other bacteria that don’t need oxygen to live.
这有利于厌氧细菌的繁殖
Basically, the pile switches to anaerobic or oxygen-free decomposition,
当堆肥的分解过程变为厌氧或无氧分解时
and the chemical products of this process are very smelly.
产生的化学物质会很臭
Like hydrogen sulfide, which smells like rotten eggs.
比如硫化氢 闻起来像臭鸡蛋
So if you just casually toss your meat and cheese into your compost pile,
所以 如果你随意地把肉或者奶酪扔进堆肥中
you’ll probably end up with a slimy, putrefied mess
最终可能会得到一堆粘稠的腐烂物
instead of lovely fertilizer.
而不是有用的肥料
And putrefied compost can actually contain chemicals that are toxic to plants,
腐烂的堆肥含有对植物有害的化学物质
though you might be able to salvage it if you dry it out and try again.
尽管可以补救 把堆肥干燥后重做
To avoid taking those extra steps,
为了避免这些额外的步骤
expert composters might add extra wood chips
专业的堆肥者可能会往堆肥中再加入一些木屑
or paper products to the pile,
或者纸质品
since they have a lot of lignin,
因为它们含有大量木质素
a tough component of plant cell walls which doesn’t contain any nitrogen at all.
一种完全不含氮的坚韧的植物细胞壁成分
Bacteria can still eat lignin-packed materials,
细菌也可以分解含有木质素的物质
so they just slow down those overly enthusiastic microbes.
从而可以让这些过于活跃的微生物慢下来
And if you really want to compost meat at home,
如果你确实想在家中用肉制作堆肥
you could plan ahead.
你可以提前计划
One way is to use a method known as bokashi,
其中一种方法名为bokashi
which relies on anaerobic processes on purpose.
这种方法特意依靠无氧过程
Basically, you add cultures of friendly anaerobic bacteria
你要向堆肥中加入有益的厌氧菌
instead of bad, smelly ones.
而不是有害的 难闻的细菌
Once things like meat scraps have been treated with the bokashi method,
像剩肉这些东西 用bokashi这种方法处理过之后
they can be added to a compost pile
也能添加到堆肥中
with less risk of the whole thing going stinky.
并且能减少发臭的风险
So just because your municipal compost service won’t take meat,
所以 市政堆肥机构不往堆肥添加肉类
that doesn’t mean it can’t be composted.
并不代表肉不能用于堆肥
You just have to know how to rein in your bacterial buddies.
你只是需要知道如何控制好其中的细菌
Thanks for asking,
感谢提问
and thanks to our patrons on patron
同时感谢在patron支持我们的赞助者
for helping us bring you these answers.
有了你们的支持 才有这期节目
You guys are the best.
你们是最棒的
If you want to learn more about joining our amazing community of supporters,
如果你也想赞助我们的节目
you can head over to patreon.com/scishow.
可以浏览“patreon.com/scishow”

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视频概述

关于制作堆肥的科学 到底能否用肉类制作堆肥呢

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

solute

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHqTQPARVe0

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