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为什么我们不能移植大脑?

Why Can't We Transplant Brains?

Two days before Christmas Day in 1954,
1954年圣诞节的前两天
the first organ transplant was achieved
在波士顿的一家医院
when a kidney was transplanted from a man called Ronald Herrick
医生成功地将肾脏从一名叫Ronald Herrick的男子
into his identical twin, Richard,
移植到他孪生兄弟Richard的身上
at a hospital in Boston.
实现了首例肾脏移植手术
In 1963, the first human lung transplant was
1963年 首例人类肺移植
performed at the University of Mississippi.
在密西西比大学进行
The liver transplant came next in 1967, also in the U.S.,
1967年 肝脏移植手术也在美国实施
and that same year a heart was transplanted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.
同年 南非开普敦的一家医院进行了心脏移植
We can now transplant other organs,
如今 我们能移植越来越多的器官
such as the pancreas, intestine, and thymus, with
如胰腺 小肠以及胸腺
the kidneys, liver and heart being the most frequently transplanted organs.
而肾脏 肝脏和心脏是最常见的移植器官
Tissues can also be transplanted,
当然 组织也可以移植
and right now scientists are even working on ways
现在科学家甚至正在研发
to 3-D print human tissue.
3D打印人体组织的技术
But there’s one things humans haven’t cracked,
但是目前有一种器官人类还没有移植过
and that’s the organ that makes us more us than any other.
而正是这个器官使我们与众不同
Today we’ll find out why, in this episode of the Infographics Show,
在本期的《图形信息秀》 咱们将探寻它的答案
Why Can’t We Transplant Brains?
为什么我们还不能移植大脑
Don’t forget to subscribe and click the bell button,
别忘了订阅并点击这个铃声按钮
so that you can be part of our Notification Squad.
这样你可以收到我们的消息通知
First of all, we should look at what the brain actually does.
首先 我们得了解大脑到底是个什么东西
This thing inside our skulls that weighs on average about 3.3 pounds (1.5 kilograms)
这个位于颅骨内的器官均重3.3磅(1.5千克)
is larger in humans than any other vertebrae when compared to body weight.
它比我们身体里的任何其他椎骨都要重
That’s why we are so brainy.
所以我们才那么聪明
The busy brain is our command center for our nervous system,
大脑这个“大忙人”是我们神经系统的指挥中心
which takes in data from our body and gives directions to our muscles.
从身体各处收集数据再传达给肌肉
In fact, it does so much work, it requires about 20 percent of our energy to run it.
实际上 它消耗人体20%的能量来运转 是一项大工程
When we are brain dead, we no longer have any neurological activity.
一旦我们脑死亡 我们就不再进行神经活动
With the help of machines, we can be kept alive for a short time,
在机器的帮助下 我们可以继续活一段时间
but within a week, the body will not be able to function.
但在此期间 身体不能再运转
While we may still be alive in some sense for that week,
或许在该周我们还会有感知能力
we are technically dead when the brain is dead.
但当脑死亡时 我们就认定是临床死亡了
Some good news is that during the time we are kept alive,
好消息是在我们在用机器维持生命的期间
some of our other organs can be donated.
我们身上的一些器官可以用来捐献
But why can’t we accept someone else’s brain?
但为什么并不接受大脑的捐献呢?
When we transplant something such as a heart,
如果我们移植像心脏这样的东西
surgeons use a mechanical pump to keep blood flooding
外科医生将新心脏放入体内时
through the body while the new heart is being put in.
会用机械泵使血液流经你的全身
The new heart is connected to the major blood vessels, and this might take several hours.
新心脏与主动脉相连结 并持续几个小时
You’ll stay in the hospital for one to two weeks,
术后 你得留在医院一到两周
and if your body doesn’t reject its new heart,
如果你的身体不排斥新心脏
it’s said 87 out of 100 people make it through the year,
就会有87%的一年存活率
and 60 out of 100 get through another decade.
以及60%的十年存活率
So, wouldn’t it just be possible to open the skull
所以 为什么不能掀开头盖骨
and connect a new brain where the removed brain was connected?
然后移植一个新的大脑呢?
This question was asked to a Professor of Neurosurgery at Yale in 2013.
这个问题早在2013年被耶鲁大学的一位神经外科教授提出
He actually did say that one day this operation might be successful,
他认为在未来某一天脑移植也许能够实现
but right now we are not even close.
但是以现在的技术是做不到的
The reason is because it’s just too darn difficult to connect nerve fibers from the
因为将新大脑的神经纤维与脊髓连接
new brain to the native spinal cord.
实在非常困难
This, he said, is why spinal cord injuries can be so devastating.
这就是脊髓损伤会如此具有毁灭性的原因
If we could transplant brains, we would likely not have so many people
如果我们可以移植大脑 我们可能
that are disabled due to spinal injuries.
就不会有那么多人因为脊髓损伤而致残
Another Professor of Neurosurgery, speaking in the same article, said that what might
另一位神经外科教授 在同一篇文章里指出
be more feasible is a whole body transplant,
更可行的是全身移植
which means a healthy brain being given a new body,
这意味着一个健康的大脑将赋予
which could be natural or artificial.
一个天然或人工制造的身体
We dug a little deeper, and found that indeed some fairly amazing transplants
我们往深层探究 会发现确实有些移植
have been done with brains or heads.
已经涉及到大脑或者头部
In the 1950s, Russian scientist Vladimir Demikhov
1950年 俄国科学家Vladimir Demilhov
created what has been called Frankenstein’s dog,
创造了一只叫弗兰肯斯坦狗的东西
when he transplanted the head of one dog onto another,
他将一只狗头移植到另一只狗身上
giving it two heads.
造出一只双头怪狗
Later, American scientist Robert White
之后 美国科学家Robert White
controversially transplanted the head of monkeys, from one to another,
在饱受争议的情况下 将一只猴头移植到另一只猴子身上
but the monkey was paralyzed as its spinal cord had been severed
然而这只猴子由于被切断了脊髓而瘫痪
and it died in a few days.
最终在几天内死亡
Basically, you can transplant a brain or a head,
理论上 你可以移植大脑或者头部
but doing it successfully is going to be a problem.
但最终能否成功还是个大难题
She believes that we won’t even go there
她认为我们根本就不应该研究这个话题
because it is just too gruesome and the public won’t like it.
因为这东西太可怕而且可能会引起公愤
Everyone seems to come to the same conclusion,
每个人似乎都得出同样的结论
in that if you sever the nerves in the central nervous system,
如果你切断中枢神经系统里的神经
the transplanted brain could not be reconnected.
移植的大脑就无法被连接
All the neurosurgeons out there seem to agree,
所有神经外科医生似乎都同意
that we just do not have anything near the technology
我们只是没有任何技术
to reattach the brain’s veins and cranial nerves,
重新接上大脑的静脉 颅神经
the spinal cord, and the four major arteries.
脊椎 以及四大动脉
One particular scientist paints a very bleak picture,
有一位科学家描绘了一副非常暗淡的图景
wherein we successfully attached a brain to the arteries and veins.
当我们成功地把一个大脑接到动脉和静脉上
You’d be thinking, but according to him, “You’d have a person
你也许会有其他想法 但该科学家认为“这会让人
in utter sensory isolation and paralysis
完全处于感官隔离和麻痹状态
—Locked-in syndrome only worse.”
而且闭锁综合症患者更严重”
He believed a full head transplant would be easier.
他认为直接移植整个头更容易
By the way, you might have read that an Italian neurosurgeon called Sergio Canavero
顺便说一句 你可能已经读过一位叫Sergio Canavero的意大利神经外科医生
performed a head transplant recently,
最近进行头部移植手术的报道
but that transplant wasn’t on living people, it was on corpses.
不过不是给活人 而是给死人移植
We are not Lego; just sticking things together
我们不是乐高玩具 并不能指望着
doesn’t mean they work with us humans.
把部件拼在一起就能组装成活人
For the most part, the great head transplant story
现在有关于头部移植成功的案例
is now being received as fake news.
几乎都被认为是假新闻
So, with billions of neurons each with trillions of synapses in the cerebral cortex,
脑皮质中有数十亿个神经元 数万亿个突触
we can’t really just expect to hook a new brain up to another body.
我们不能将新大脑直接和另一个身体连接
But never say never;
但一切皆有可能
while brain transplants might sound like science fiction,
虽然大脑移植听起来和科幻小说一般
what might happen if we did successfully manage to rewire a brain in another body?
如果我们成功了 将会发生什么呢?
No one really knows, but there is a lot of speculation out there.
没有人知道 但还是有很多推测
It seems some people agree you’d just be you, in another body.
有些人觉得即使在另一个身体里 你还是你
By that, you’d be the brain in another body,
若这样说 你也只是另一个身体里的脑子
and the person whose brain was removed, while looking like the survivor,
而被移除大脑的家伙 看起来还活着
would in fact be the person who had gone.
实际上已经死了
The brain rules.
因为大脑主宰着一切
Another thing people talk about is the fact that brains grow with bodies, in tune,
另一些人认为脑子和身体一起成长 相互影响
so if one brain was put in another body,
所以如果把我们的大脑放进另外的身体
things might not just run like clockwork.
就不会像流水作业那样简单
It could produce a kind of trauma,
即使完美无缺地连接
even if all the right bits were connected.
都有可能会造成某种损伤
And that could only happen if the huge doses of immunosuppressants
除非你用足够强的免疫抑制剂
could ensure the immune system doesn’t attack the new brain, or head.
来防止新大脑和身体发生的强烈免疫反应
Even if you did do that,
然而就算你有药
one scientist said this year that
今年某科学家称
by putting a new chemical environment with new neurological input
大脑和身体仍会因为化学环境的
would just lead to a very mentally messed up Frankenstein.
不协调而造成神经信号的紊乱
We’d have no continuity,
我们将很难适应身体
and might end up feeling like Mary Shelley’s creation who
最后可能会如玛丽·雪莱笔下的怪物
once asked, “Was I, then, a monster, a blot upon the earth,
一样问道:“我难道是个怪物吗?
from which all men fled and whom all men disowned?”
为何所有人都对我避之不及 置之不理?”
In conclusion, we are not even close to brain transplants, or head transplants.
总之 关于大脑移植以及头部移植 我们还有很长的路要走
We are not sure how they could be done successfully,
我们不确定怎样才能成功
and we are very afraid of trying.
也还在对尝试感到恐惧
What do you think about the idea?
对此你有什么看法?
Let us know in the comments!
在评论区留下你的分享!
Also, be sure to check out our other video called
同样 记得去看我们另一个视频
Worst Prison Experiments Conducted on Humans!
最糟糕的监狱人体实验!
Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t forget to like, share, and subscribe.
感谢观看 别忘了点赞 分享和订阅喔
See you next time!
咱们下次见!

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视频概述

视频介绍了大脑移植所存在的问题以及大脑的重要性。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Judhen

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审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ohCQRJGbV8

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