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为什么无法利用潮汐能

Why Can't We Get Power From Waves?

嗨 我是亚历克斯 欢迎来到分钟地球
Hi, this is Alex from MinuteEarth.
海洋蕴藏了巨大的潮汐能
The ocean is covered with literal waves of energy,
如果我们能将这些能量转化为电能
and if we could convert this energy
就能满足全人类对电的需求
into electricity, we could power all of humanity’selectrical needs.
但如今这只是个空想
But for now that’s just a dream.
因为 我们仍然还未能
That’s because we haven’t
有效利用潮汐能来驱动涡轮机
yet figured out an efficient way to use waves to spin turbines,
而驱动涡轮机是
and spinning a turbine is the
目前所知的 将机械能
best way we know of to convert the mechanical energy
转变为电能的最佳途径
of a moving substance into electrical energy.
除了太阳能外 大部分电能都由旋转涡轮机提供
Aside from solar panels, pretty much all our electricity comes from spinning turbines.
风力涡轮机和水轮机是最常见的
Wind turbines and water turbines are the most obvious,
而连煤矿 汽油和核电厂
but even our coal, gas and nuclear
都要用到涡轮机
power plants use turbines –
这些能源只是用来将水加热成流动的水蒸气
the fuel is just there to heat water into steam that can flow
用来驱动涡轮机
and spin a turbine.
另外 潮汐
A wave, on the other hand,
不能整体流动 形成流体
is not the flow of a substance as a whole. Instead,
而只是局部
it’s just the local,
小幅度震动
oscillating motion of small regions of the substance.
就像体育馆里的人模仿潮汐一样
It’s like how at a stadium when the crowd does The Wave,
如果这是潮汐的流动轨迹
the wave moves through the
而人们没有向旁边移动 只是上下起伏
crowd but the people don’t move sideways – just up and down.
如果所有人 像这样
If the entire crowd was, say,
在体育馆走动 可以想象每个人都在
walking around the stadium, you could imagine everyone helping
这个地方推动一个大涡轮机的画面
twist a single big turbine on the field.
但有部分人只是在那起立 坐下
But if people were just standing up and sitting down,
这样就需要更复杂的装置系统
you’d need a more complicated system
来驱动涡轮机
to move the turbine.
话题回到海洋上
So, back in the ocean,
许多人想利用潮汐能 试图将水流转变为
most attempts at harnessing wave energy try to turn waves into something
能驱动涡轮机的能量
else that can spin a turbine.
我们做潮水涨落的地方挖了许多洞穴
We’ve made caverns in which waves rise and fall,
来压缩涡轮机周围流动的空气
pressurizing air that flows past a turbine.
我们制作了大型浮管 弯曲它们的接口
We’ve made big floating pipes whose joints flex
放进海水下面 使得里面的泵将
in the waves, driving pumps that pressurize
能让涡轮机转动的空气压缩
fluid that can spin a turbine.
我们还制作了
And we’ve created what are essentially
大型漂浮袋 海浪拍打进来
big floating bags that waves pile up into, and
然后有水流出去 从而驱动涡轮机
that water flows out of, spinning a turbine.
还发现 在海洋的岸边
We’ve also realized that at the edge
涨潮时 海水的水流速度
of the ocean, when waves break, their water flows
快到能驱动涡轮机
quickly enough to spin a turbine,
但每次驱动的时间只是几秒钟
but only for a few seconds at a time.
尽管 到目前为止 我们还不能
So far, though, we haven’t been able to get any
让这些涡轮机快速
of these turbines to spin fast enough
且连续地转动来提高廉价的电能
or consistently enough to make electricity -at least cheap electricity
在海洋建造工程的费用非常高
Building things in the ocean is expensive,
任何在海洋建造的工程 都会受到海水 沙子
and then whatever you build gets exposed to saltwater, sand, debris,
碎片 甲壳类动物以及暴风雨的侵蚀
barnacles, and storms,
因而需要花费大量的金钱来修复
so you have to spend a lot of money repairing it.
最终 还没能成功设计出 既能从潮汐中获取能量
As a result, there’s no commercially successful design
又能盈利的海上工程
for capturing energy from waves.
也许有一天我们能找到让海上涡轮机盈利的方法
We may yet be able to figure out how to make turbines commercially viable,
也许我们
or we may move
将来不需依靠涡轮机
past the turbine paradigm;
我们想到了一种不需依靠涡轮机的设计
we’ve come up with some designs that don’t rely on turbines
像救生圈 在它震动时 给它装上发电机
– like buoys whose bobbing movement pulls on a generator –
但它产生电的成本
but their electricity ends
就跟依赖涡轮机的工程一样高
up being just as expensive as from the designs that rely on turbines.
新的潮汐能很快就会到来
Hopefully,a new wave of wave-energy will arrive someday soon,
但目前为止 潮汐能
but so far, wave energy
几乎没什么作用
is barely making a ripple.
此视频由日本冲绳科学技术大学院大学赞助
This video was sponsored by the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University ,
这是一所国际研究生学院 致力于推动
an international graduate school devoted to the advancement of science,
日本和全世界的科学 教育和创新发展
education and innovation in Japan and throughout the world.
冲绳科学技术大学院大学提供全奖博士
OIST offers a fully-funded PhD program
项目研究实习机会 这吸引了
and research internship opportunities that attract
世界各地有才华的年轻科学家
talented young scientists
来到这里和教授Tsumoru Shintake
from around the world to work with researchers like Professor
等研究人员一起开展研究工作
Tsumoru Shintake, whose Wave Energy
Tsumoru Shintake的潮汐能工程就是要解决前面所说的困难
Project is tackling the challenges discussed in this video.
目前为止 他们在
So far, innovations
涡轮机设计上的创新提高了能量的输出
in their turbine design have already improved power output, which
如果潮汐能要成为可行的能源 这些创新很必要
is essential if wave power is ever going to become a viable energy source.
想了解更多OIST的信息 请访问网址admissions.oist.jp.
To learn more about OIST, visit admissions.oist.jp.

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视频概述

潮汐能无法稳定、连续驱动能发电的涡轮机,以及在海上建造工程的成本极高,因此潮汐能现在无法利用

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Nacy廖

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PMRiKmgxrh0

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