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为什么我能听到这个动图? – 译学馆
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为什么我能听到这个动图?

Why Can I Hear This .gif?

[INTRO ♪]
[进场音乐]
So there’s a thing happening on the internet
所以在互联网上发生了一件事情
that you might have seen:
你可能已经看到了:
viral gifts—or gifs,
病毒式的礼物-或者动图
no one’s decided for sure yet—t
还没有人确定-
hat seem to have a sound.
似乎有了声音
They’re silent, like all gifs,
就像所有的动图一样 它们是无声的
but if you’re one of the many people
但是如果你是经历过一种
that experience a phenomenon known as vEAR,
叫做vEAR的现象的许多人中的一员
you might have heard them.
你可能听过它们
vEAR stands for Visually Evoked Auditory Response.
vEAR代表视觉诱发听觉反应
It’s only recently been identified,
这直到最近2017年发表的一篇
in a paper published in 2017.
论文中才确认了这一点
Though initially vEAR flew under the radar,
尽管vEAR最初没有引起人们的注意
it got launched into the spotlight
但在2017年12月 一张跳动的
in December of 2017 when a gif
电塔的动图在推特上疯传
of a bouncing electrical tower went viral on Twitter.
使它成为人们关注的焦点
We’ll stick it in the description for you to see.
我们会把它写在说明书里给你看
According to the highly unscientific
根据推特上这项
twitter poll alongside said tweet,
极不科学的调查显示
a majority of respondents perceived sound
大多数调查者在看钟楼坍塌时的动图时
from the gif as the tower hit the floor.
都能感觉到来自它的声音
That’s a pretty sizeable number.
这个数字相当可观
Of course, there’s always the possibility
当然 也可能很多人只是想
that a lot of people were just going along to feel included—
感受一下被包括在内的感觉——
but then again,
不过话说回来
there’s whole subreddits devoted to noisy gifs.
这里还有一个专门讨论吵闹的动图的小圈子
Even so, that tweet caught the eye of
即便如此 这条推文还是引起了
a whole lot of psychology researchers,
很多心理学研究人员的注意
who promptly got really excited.
他们立刻变得非常兴奋
Scientists from around the world
来自世界各地的科学家
started weighing in on possible solutions.
开始权衡可能的解决方案
One particular scientist from City,
一位来自伦敦城市大学的
University of London spotted the tweet,
科学家发现了这条推特
and immediately thought
并立即认为
it was a great real world example of work on vEAR
这是他的实验室几个月前发表的关于vEAR的研究成果
published by his lab only a few months prior.
在现实世界的一个很好的例子
In that 2017 paper, published in
2017年发表在《意识与认知》
the journal Consciousness and Cognition,
杂质上的那篇论文中
the researchers looked at sensations of sound
研究人员研究了闪光
that could be evoked by flashes of light.
可能引发的声音感觉
When asked if the presentation of flashes
当被问及闪光是否
were accompanied by a sound,
伴随着声音时
22 % of their participants said yes.
22%的参与者说是的
And then, in order to confirm
然后 为了证实
those reports of perceiving sound,
这些关于感知声音的报告
investigators also tested participants
研究人员还对参与者进行了一项
on a more objective measure
更为客观的测试
they called ‘visual morse codes ’.
他们称之为“视觉摩斯密码”
In this study, a white disk presented
在这项研究中 一个白色的
on a black background turned on and off
圆盘呈现在黑色背景上
in particular morse-like patterns.
以特定的莫斯模式打开和关闭
The participants that reported hearing the flashes,
报告听到闪光声音的参与者
were significantly better at identifying,
比那些听不到闪光的参与者
whether pairs of morse code flashes were the same,
在辨别摩斯密码闪光是否相同方面
than those who were unable to hear flashes.
明显表现的更好
Those that heard the stimuli seemed to be
那些听到刺激的人似乎能
turning the visuals into auditory information,
将视觉信息转化为听觉信息
which stores timing way
而听觉信息比
better than visual information does.
视觉信息储存的时间更长
Kind of like an audio cheat sheet that
有点像一个其他参与者
other participants just didn’t have access to.
都没有访问过的音频备忘录
Harnessing the power of the twitter storm,
利用推特热转风暴的力量
these researchers started
这些研究人员开始
talking to news outlets about their theory.
与新闻媒体谈论他们的理论
And,at the end of articles interviewing them,
在采访他们的文章的末尾
many outlets provided a link
许多媒体提供了研究人员
to the researchers’new study
调查这一现象
investigating the phenomenon.
的新研究的链接
All in all, they got over 4000 responses
总而言之 他们收到了来自世界各地
from around the world,
的4000多份回复
about just how people experienced
关于人们是如何体验
the supposed sounds these gifs were making.
这些动图发出的声音的
The data showed that videos depicting situations
数据显示 用大量“运动能量”
with a lot of ‘movement energy’,
来描绘场景的视频
or predicted loud sounds,
或者预测会有很响的声音
like a car crash,
比如车祸
were most likely to trigger vEAR.
最有可能触发vEAR
And,though they didn’t have tests
尽管他们没有足够好
good enough to measure it directly,
的测试来直接测量
the researchers suggested that
研究人员认为
vEAR may be a kind of synesthesia.
vEAR可能是一种通感
Synesthesia is a crossing over of senses.
通感是一种感官的交叉
When one sensory modality
当一种感官方式
like hearing is stimulated,
比如听觉受到刺激时
those with synesthesia
那些有通感的人
might perceive something in a different,
可能会以一种不同的 未受刺激的
unstimulated sensory modality.
感觉方式感知到某些东西
They might associate certain types of music
例如 他们可能会自动 可信的
automatically and reliably
将某些类型的音乐
with certain colours or patterns, for example.
与某些颜色或图案联系起来
There are a lot of different types of synesthesia.
有很多不同类型的通感
Everything from sensing particular personalities,
任何事从感知特定的个性
from numbers,
从数字
to perceiving different kinds of erotic stimulation
到用特定的颜色感知不同
with specific colours.
种类的性刺激
We don’t have a single, unifying theory of
我们还没有一个统一的的理论
what happens in the brain to cause synesthesia yet,
来解释大脑中发生的事情是如何导致通感的
but many scientists believe
但许多科学家认为
it’s the product of an increased communication
这是通常不互通的感知区域
between sensory areas that don’t usually talk.
之间交流增加的结果
That kind of sensory overlap
这种感官上的重叠
certainly seems similar to vEAR,
看起来和vEAR很像
but whether or not vEAR is a kind of synesthesia
但是vEAR是否是一种通感
is very much still an open question.
仍然是一个悬而未决的问题
If it is, it could be pretty big for synesthesia research.
如果是的话 这对于通感研究来说将是非常大的
The prevalence of vEAR seems to be much higher
拥有vEAR的人似乎比
than that of other types of synesthesia.
其他类型的通感要高得多
And the scientists involved believe that
参与研究的科学家们认为
the prevalence of sensory crossover seen in vEAR
在vEAR中发现的 感官交叉现象的普遍存在
might challenge the idea that
可能会挑战 通感不是
synesthesia is anything other than
人与人之间正常差异
a part of normal variations between people.
的一部分 的观点
Maybe it’s more normal to have senses cross over
也许感官像这样交叉比
like this than we first thought.
我们最初想象的更正常
However,this isn’t the only theory
然而 这并不是解释
that could explain noisy gifs.
有声动图的唯一理论
Some people have also highlighted the possibility
有些人还强调了这种可能性
that it’s not actually a synesthesia-like process.
即这实际上不是一个类似通感的过程
It could be that visual brain areas are providing
这可能是视觉大脑区域 给耳朵提
a sort of pre-emptive nudge to the ear
供了 一种先发制人的触动
to brace for expected sound.
为预期的声音做准备
The acoustic reflex is a contraction of
听觉反射是一种
the stapedius muscle —a tiny muscle in the middle ear
中耳小肌肉的收缩
that occurs in response to loud audio stimuli.
这种收缩是对大声的声音刺激的反应
That decreases the vibrational energy
这就减少了传递给
transmitted to the cochlea,
耳蜗的振动能量
the part of the inner ear
耳蜗是内耳将
that translates vibrations into neural firing.
振动转化为神经放电的部分
The acoustic reflex is well documented
声音发射在科学文献中
in scientific literature,
有很好的记录
and can be used to gain insight
可以用来了解
into a lot of different hearing conditions.
许多不同的听力条件
It also may produce an unexpected noise
当它发生时 也可能在耳朵内
in the ear when it happens,
产生意想不到的噪音
since it pulls the inner ear
因为它把内耳拉成
into a slightly different shape.
一个稍微不同的形状
So it might be that the acoustic reflex isn’t
因此 声音反射可能不仅仅是
just responding to the sound happening,
对声音发生的反应
but being prompted
而是收到
by the visuals predictive of a loud noise.
预测噪音的视觉刺激
That would explain why research has found that
这就解释了为什么研究发现
videos showing situations predictive of loud noises
显示预感会有噪音的场景的视频
trigger vEAR.
会触发vEAR
The brain might be pre-empting a sizeable sound
大脑可能会先发出相当大的声音
and is letting the ear know, like,
然后让耳朵知道
‘hey, it’s about to get real loud nearby!’.
“嘿 附近的声音会越来越大!”
While we haven’t nailed down
虽然我们还没有确定
the exact mechanisms behind vEAR,
vEAR背后的确切机制
or why some people have it while others don’t,
或者为什么有些人有而有些人没有
research is still ongoing to find out.
但研究仍在继续
What is clear, though,
然而 有一点是清楚的
is that we ’ ve only scratched the surface
当涉及到解码我们感官
when it comes to decoding the complex ways
相互作用的复杂方式时
our senses interact.
我们只触及了皮毛
That,and sometimes tweeting about
有时候 推特上发布的
weird stuff results in actually advancing science.
一些奇怪的东西会促进科学的发展
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych,
感谢收看本期的《心理科学秀》
and thank you to Kimberly for asking.
感谢金伯利的提问
Our patrons on Patreon get to vote and decide
我们Patreon 的赞助人可以投票决定
what burning scientific questions we address.
我们要解决哪些紧迫的科学问题
So if you want a chance
如果你想要
at getting your question answered,
解答你问题的机会
check out patreon.com/scishow.
请登录patreon.com/scishow.
[OUTRO ♪]
[结束音乐]

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视频概述

本视频介绍了两种可能让人“听到”动图的机制

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FH7SOBwE1M

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