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为什么区块链非常重要 – 译学馆
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为什么区块链非常重要

Why Blockchain Matters More Than You Think!

您正在收看的是冷流科技
You are watching ColdFusion TV ,
冷流科技
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大家好 欢迎再次收看ColdFusion视频栏目
Hi,welcome to another ColdFusion video
在2008年全球经济危机后不久
Shortly after the 2008 global financial crash,
一个自称为中本聪的人或未知组织
a mysterious white paper emerged from an unknown entity,
发布了一本神秘的白皮书
a person or group calling themselves Satoshi Nakamoto.
这本神秘的白皮书
In this mysterious white paper,
讨论的是一种全新的P2P金融系统
a new peer-to-peer financial system was discussed.
目的是使用一种被称为比特币的数字加密货币
It was to use a digital cryptocurrency called Bitcoin.
这对于那些对中央干预金融体系
It was an omen to people being sick of centralized power
厌倦了的人来说就像是一个先兆
meddling with economic systems.
很多人认为这个新的体系更好
Many perceive this new system as a better way of doing things.
为这个新体系提供动力的技术叫做
The technology invented to power this new system
区块链
was called blockchain,
在中本聪的书中有详细描述
a nakamoto’s paper was its grand unveiling.
在本视频中 我们将讨论它一些令人激动的应用
In this video, we’ll talk about some exciting implications of this technology
以及对我们所有人的生活可能造成的影响
and the impact it could have on all of our lives.
为什么区块链比你想象中的更重要
那么什么是区块链?
So what is blockchain?
它以比特币和以太坊等加密货币的技术为基础
It’s the underlying technology behind crypto currencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum,
但它的用途远不止于加密货币
but its uses go far beyond that
这些听起来有点复杂
It all sounds complicated,
我用一句话来解释一下
but let me try and break it down to one sentence,
也是一条你需要记住的核心概念
an important concept that you need to remember.
那就是:
Simply put:
区块链是一种实时更新记录 记录着谁对什么的所有权
blockchain is a continuously updated record of who holds what.
这些记录被分割成相连的区块
These records are split into linked blocks,
并且通过密码保护
and then secured using cryptography.
有密码保护就意味着 你可以完全信任这些记录
The cryptography part just means that you can be sure about the records.
这被称为自动信任
This is dubbed as automated trust,
或者叫做系统固有信任
or trust that’s inherently built into the system
这一系列称作分布式账本的记录
The list of records, known as a distributed ledger,
是去中心化的 每个人都可以查看和校验
is decentralized and available to everyone to see and verify
此外 由于它的分布本质 区块链是防篡改
In addition, the blockchain is tamper-evident
和无法入侵的
and unhackable due to its distributed nature.
如果有一个块被黑了 所有人都会知道
Everyone knows when a block has been messed with
因为剩下的系统会拒绝访问它
because it is rejected by the rest of the system
如果你想了解更多细节
If you want to know more details,
我之前做过一个关于
I’ve already done a video about the basics of
区块链在加密货币中的应用基础的视频
how blockchain works in regards to crypto currencies
我会将这个视频和其它相关资料放在下方的描述栏中
I’ll leave that video and other information sources in the description below
区块链与比特币以及其它加密货币
Blockchain has a social perception strongly related to Bitcoin
密切相关
and other cryptocurrencies.
大部分人将区块链和科技精英犯罪
And most people view the blockchain as something for intellectual tech-savvy criminals
或反政府的人联系到一起
or people that are anti-government.
然而逐渐显露的事实表明
But the emerging truth,
区块链的应用绝不止加密货币
is that the blockchain has applications far beyond cryptos
总的来说 区块链不逊于一场革命
and as a whole will be nothing short of revolutionary
今天 我邀请了对这个行业有着深刻了解的
I’ve invited Dr. Adrian McCullagh, a blockchain lawyer
区块链律师安德里安·麦考夫博士
who’s at the cutting edge of what’s going on in the industry
来给我们做个讲解
to speak to us today.
你好
Hello? umm…
我是一名有30年从业经验的律师
I’m a lawyer of 30 years experience.
我还是唯一有IT安全博士身份的律师
I’m the only lawyer with a PhD in IT security
我的论文主题是
My thesis involved
《对数字签名和哈希算法的技术分析》
Technical analysis of digital signatures and hash algorithms
这也是区块链的技术基础
which happens to be the underlying technology for blockchain.
区块链是一种特殊的数据储存库
So a blockchain is just a special type of data repository
它是防篡改的
that is in itself tamper evident.
区块链技术曾被很多人称为
Blockchain technology has been called
互联网的下一个舞台
the next stage of the Internet by many.
但我认为它是下一代互联网
But I believe that this is now the next generation of the Internet
它在每一行业 每个社会以及所有人中
and that it holds vast promise for every business
都有广泛的应用前景
every society and for all of you individually.
我来解释一下
Let me break it down.
我们现在的互联网是一种信息网络
Our current Internet is an Internet of information.
它基本的概念是复制 分发信息
It’s based on the concept of copying and distributing information,
即视频 邮件或数据
be it video, Email, or data.
所有这些都是复制的 比如
All of these are copies. For example,
如果你想在YouTube上看视频或接收邮件
if you want to watch a video on YouTube or receive an email,
你是在看原始文件的数字复制品
you’re looking at a digital copy of the original.
但如果我们把它放到区块链中会怎样呢
But what if we take this further to the next stage?
如果(网络上的)资产能提供真实价值呢
What about assets that provide real value?
就像房子或汽车所有权的合同
Like contracts such as a house or car ownership,
股票 债券 金钱 投票
a stock, a bond, money, votes
或数字身份证
or digital identities.
问题是 你不希望这些东西是复制的
The problem is you don’t want to have these things as copies.
例如 你不会想给了某人5000美金
For example, you don’t want to send someone $5,000
但原始的5000美金还在你名下
yet still have the original $5,000 under your name.
这种问题被加密货币使用者叫做双重支付
This was called the double spending problem by cryptographers.
尽管这个名称的基本意思
Despite the name,
是本应该只有唯一身份的东西
this basically means the problem of having two digital copies
却有两个数字拷贝的问题
of something that should only have one unique identity.
区块链的加密元素
The cryptography element of the blockchain
使它能够成为第一个解决
enabled it to be the first technology of its kind
双重支付这类问题的技术
to solve the double spending problem.
人类首次可以建立一个
Now for the first time we can build a new stage
基于实际价值的新互联网
of the Internet based on real value.
这就是区块链如此伟大的部分原因
And this is partly why it’s such a big deal
那么区块链应用在哪些地方
So where can the blockchain be applied?
在我与安德里安博士的对话中
In my talk with Dr. Adrienne,
他讨论了区块链应用的FITS模式
he discusses the FITS model of blockchain application.
FITS是一个缩写
FITS is an acronym.
在这个模式下 使用区块链的最佳场合
Using this model, the best places to use blockchain
是那些高诈骗概率的地方
are places with high possibility of fraud,
以及具有高吞吐量和稳定数据的中介或中间商环境
an intermediary or middleman environments with high throughput and stable data.
安德里安博士为我们做进一步阐述
I’ll let Dr. Adrian explain further.
你应该试着与你所处的环境抗衡
Um you should try to run
即叫做“FITS模式”的环境
against your environment, what’s called the FITS model, F-I-T-S
FITS模式代表……
The FITS model stands for,
F代表fraud(欺骗)
F stands for fraud.
如果在各种各样的交易中
If you are in an environment
你所处的环境
where there is a history, propensity,
具有欺骗的历史 倾向
likelihood of fraud involved
或可能性
in various transactions,
那么区块链可以帮助
then the blockchain can assist
减少实际发生欺骗的可能性
in reducing the likelihood of fraud actually occurring
安德里安博士接着说到
Adrienne goes on to say
这就是区块链应用在国际金融交易上的原因
that this is why blockchain is being used for international finance transactions.
FITS第二个字母是I
The next area of the FITS is the I.
如果你所处的环境
If you have an environment where there are
有中介机构介入
intermediaries involved
要是他们不能真正提供价值
then you may be able to disintermediate those parties
那么你就可以直接绕开他们
if they really don’t provide value
他接着说到
He goes on to say that
通过绕开中间商
we can get average transaction settlement times
我们可以把每次交易完成的时间从平均两天降到15分钟
from two days down to 15 minutes by taking away middlemen.
每秒的吞吐量或交易量
Throughput, or number of transactions per second,
是另一个需要考虑的因素
is another consideration.
事实证明 比特币每秒只能完成十次交易
It turns out that Bitcoin can only do ten transactions
而万事达信用卡和签发签证能达到八万次
per second while MasterCard and Visa can do about eighty thousand
但研究人员调查不断上升的吞吐量
But researchers are currently looking into increasing the throughput.
你可以看看
You then look at things which, what
来自新南威尔士大学的文森特·格里马尔迪的研究成果
Vincent Grimaldi from the University of New South Wales has developed.
他已经能
He’s been able to
通过分布式计算的方法
increase the throughput to four hundred thousand transactions a second
使用上百台笔记本 电脑提供计算能力
through what’s called decentralized computing,
把每秒交易的吞吐量提升到四十万次
using a hundred Laptops, PCs to do the processing power.
接下来(需要考虑的)是数据的稳定性
And next is the stability of data.
区块链应用需要稳定的数据
For a blockchain application you don’t want volatile data
它存储的东西需要保留一段时间
You want things that are going to stay the same for at least a while,
比如土地所有权和个人信息
things such as land ownership titles and personal information
这就是有关使用
So that’s the theory about what systems you should look for
区块链系统的理论知识
in regards to using blockchain applications
但目前区块链实际应用在哪些地方呢
But where is the blockchain actually being used today?
我们来快速浏览一下正在进行的应用
Here’s a quick fire round of applications underway.
洪都拉斯和瑞典使用区块链进行土地登记
Blockchain land registries are being looked at in Honduras and Sweden.
钻石交易能在区块链上进行跟踪
Diamonds are looking to be tracked by the blockchain
以便阻止血钻的流通
to stop things like blood diamonds.
纳斯达克股票交易所不久将应用区块链系统
The Nasdaq Stock Exchange will soon begin a blockchain system
来记录交易和私人持股公司
to record the trading and privately held companies.
英格兰银行声明
The Bank of England has stated that the blockchain
区块链是一项重大意义的创新
is a significant innovation
它对金融业具有深远的影响
that could have far-reaching implications in the financial industry.
不仅如此
Not only this,
包括巴克莱 瑞信和汇丰在内的六家银行
but six banks including Barclays, Credit Swiss
都计划发行自己的数字加密货币
and HSBC are all planning on making a single digital cryptocurrency
使用区块链来进行清算结账
to clear and settle transactions using the blockchain.
微软公司已经根据以太坊的区块链技术
Microsoft is even getting in on the action
建立了区块链交易的结构框架
by building a framework using the Ethereum blockchain.
在社交媒体方面
On the social media front,
Reddit的竞争对手Steemit
the Steemit, a reddit competitor,
YouTube的竞争对手DTube
and its video companion DTube, a YouTube competitor,
都使用了区块链平台
both are blockchain based platforms
Steemti和DTube通过创建内容能获取加密货币的奖励
where you can get paid in cryptocurrency for creating content.
这为社交媒体指出了新的发展方向
This is showing a new direction and where social media could go.
事实上
As a matter of fact
我自己也签约了Steemit
I’ve actually just signed up for Steemit myself.
这一切都很好
Okay, so this is all good,
但我们把它提升一个层次来说
but let’s turn things up a notch.
区块链
Blockchain goes even further
在去中心化的自治组织上的应用更加深远
when we talk about something called a decentralized autonomous organization,
去中心化的自治组织的缩写为“DAO”
a D-A-O, or DAO for short.
由于区块链技术
Because of blockchain technology,
历史上我们第一次有能力
we now have the capability to create huge company organizations
创造分布式和自动化的巨型公司组织
that are distributed and automated for the first time in history.
这在以前从未有过
This has never been done before
它几乎能提供无限的可能性
and could provide near limitless potential.
在区块链出现以前 我们只走到了一半
Before the blockchain, we were already halfway there.
我们有YouTube这样的组织
We have organizations like YouTube
老派的集中管理制度
that are a mix of the old-style central management
和由散户创建内容的模式混合在一起
with a decentralized user base creating content
DAO运用代码管理规则和决策
A DAO would have computer code that runs the rules and decisions instead
能替代顶层的集中管理小组
of a central management team at the top.
在去中心化网络中
The people in the decentralized network
人们能选定规则
would decide on the rules,
形成共识 创建一种智能合约
form a consensus and create something called a smart contract
智能合约基本上就是一套计算机代码编译的规则
Basically a set of computer coded rules
当需要时 电脑会自动执行合约上的指令
that a computer would execute later when needed.
换句话说
In other words a DAO is
DAO就像是自动运行的民主公司
like a democratic company that’s automatically run So,
DAO意味着去中心化
a DAO is meant to be a Decentralized,
所以它在区块链上
so it’s on the blockchain,
不涉及到集中管理
there’s no central management involved Autonomous,
它由代码管理交易
in that the code will run the transaction.
它本身就是某种组织形式
And it’s meant to be some form of organization
从法律角度来看
The difficulty from a legal perspective is
难题是在目前的情况下
that no one at this point in time
没有人能正确指出DAO究竟是什么
has been able to classify exactly what a DAO is.
也许几年后
It may be that in a few years time
DAO会十分流行
DAOs will become so popular
立法者将不得不
that legislators will need to
创建专门的法律来分辨DAO
create special legislation that will recognize what a DAO is,
但此时此刻没有人知道
but at this point in time no one knows
我们来看一个关于在只有智能合约的情况下
Let’s take a look at a basic hypothetical example
DAO是如何运作的假设性例子
of how this might work, but just with one smart contract
假设在未来 那时区块链非常容易建立
So say in the future, when the blockchain is readily established,
你想买一辆二手的特斯拉
you want to buy a used Tesla Model 3
传统做法是 你要找一个经销商或某个人
Traditionally, you’d go to a dealer or an individual,
你得证实这辆车的的历史细节没有问题
you’d make sure that the details in the history of the car are correct
你得跟经销商砍价
You’d hassle for a price with the seller,
从银行取钱
take some money out from the bank,
把钱转给他人 签一堆文件
transfer the money, sign a lot of paperwork
等着清账
wait for the money to clear,
然后才能拿到车
and then you can finally have the car.
这要花去好几天时间
This will take around a few days to do Now,
现在 有了区块链 使用智能合约
with the blockchain, using a smart contract,
你可以实时完成所有的交易
you could have this order all carried out in real time
有关车的信息会上传到区块链
The car would be uploaded to the blockchain
因为系统的信任机制
so that you would already know that the details are correct
你能知道汽车正确无误的细节
because trust is built into the system
你能用关联着你银行账户的
You could buy this car with a cryptocurrency
加密货币购买这辆车
that’s attached to your bank account,
有关车的所有权以及其它细节问题
and all of the ownership and other details about the car is
在智能合约里执行
executed in a smart contract,
所以 完成一切只需要几分钟而不是几天
so everything would happen in a matter of minutes instead of days
现在 你对这辆车的所有权
Your ownership of the car is
关联到你在区块链的数字身份上
now attached to your digital identity on the blockchain
区块链的全球记录系统更新这一信息
The global records in the blockchain system is now
在系统里的每个人就都知道了
updated so that everybody in the system now knows
这辆车卖给了你
that this car was sold to you
你可以更进一步
You can take all of this a step further
通过把不同的智能合约链接到一家组织
by linking up different smart contracts into an organization,
比如Airbnb或Uber
similar to Airbnb or Uber,
在服务的评级系统和顾客满意度的约束下
so the whole process is automatic,
这一切都是自动完成的
with rating systems of service and customer satisfaction etc.
根据安德里安博士的观点
Although that setup is a sharing economy model,
尽管开始是分享经济模式
according to Dr. Adrian,
但按照这种方法 能轻易地安排一组智能合约
a group of smart contracts can easily be arranged in this way
所以 希望你正在收看
So I hope that you’re beginning to
这种科技的重要性和潜力
see the importance and potential of such technology.
但凡事都有两面性
But it’s not all roses
目前区块链还有一些缺陷
Right now there are still some downsides
比如恶意的智能合约
Malicious smart contracts for example.
理论上 能设计出这种合约堵塞整个系统
These can theoretically be designed to clog up the entire system In addition,
此外 如果去中心化自治组织
if there are actual coding errors
自身出现代码错误
within a decentralized autonomous organization itself,
会引发大量问题
this could create massive problems
另一个问题是区块链是永久性的
Another thing is that the blockchain is also permanent:
每一笔交易都永远记录在上面
every record of a transaction is stored there for all time
这不能让那些在意
And this doesn’t sit well for those concerned
隐私权和被遗忘权的人满意
of privacy and the right to be forgotten Dr.
安德里安博士指出
Adrian did state that there are going to
有一种称作“预言机”的平台
be some entities called Oracles, and these guys
他们有机会编辑区块链
have special clearance to make edits on
但总体来说
the blockchain, but overall this
这仍然是一个需要进一步研究的问题
is still an issue that needs further looking into
最后的一些想法
当我们谈及区块链 谈及DAOs
As I tell people, you know, when
ICOs以及具有同类性质的东西时
we talk about blockchain, and we talk about DAOs,
我跟人说
and ICOs and things of that nature
我们就处在区块链生态系统上
we are at this stage in the blockchain
可能跟1993年类似
ecosystem probably the equivalent of 1993
那时克林顿总统在美国国家科学基金会
When the internet was opened up by President Clinton
开启了互联网革命
in the National Science Foundation prior to 1992
在1992年之前
the internet was only open to
互联网只对研究组织 政府机构
research organizations, government agencies
以及国防承包组织开放
defense contracting organizations.
在1992年的时候 谁又能想到
Who would have thought in 1992
会出现谷歌 亚马逊之类的公司
that we would have companies like Google, Amazon
所有这些公司都利用和依赖互联网
All of those companies have taken advantage and looked
都会问 我该如何利用这种技术呢
at the internet and said how can I use this piece of technology?
我不清楚那些聪明的大师 博士生
I have no idea what some really smart masters,
会做什么
PhD student is going to do and
也不知道他们是否会说
And say we could use the blockchain or
我们能用区块链 智能合约或DAO来处理这个
smart contract or a DAO to do this
可能有来自昆士兰大学
May come from the University of Queensland
澳大利亚的科廷大学 斯坦福大学的某些学生
Curtin University in WA Stanford
谁知道呢
You know, who knows
未来的某个时候 他们会想到这个
what someone is going to think about in the future,
并且说:“哇 我们能用这种技术解决这个问题呢”
and say”wow, we can use this technology to do this”
我觉得我做不到
I don’t believe it’s going to be me,
我希望能做到
I’d love it to be me
但有些聪明的人
But there will be some smart people
会看着这个技术
out there who will look at this technology
说“我来做吧” 其他人就会说
and say”let’s do this”, and the rest of the world would say
“哇 这真的就是我想要的
“wow, that’s really something I want to get on board
我想用用它”
and I want to utilize that service”
所以 当所有人都关注人工智能时
So while everyone’s focused on the buzz of artificial intelligence,
我真的认为区块链
I really think that the blockchain is a dark horse
是一匹不为人注意的黑马
that’s going under the radar, mainly
主要是因为它不够传奇
because it’s not as romanticized and the
而且它的概念有点难以理解
concept is a little bit harder to grasp Regardless,
无论如何 区块链是互联网的下一个阶段
blockchain is the next step of the Internet,
是关于世界上的事物如何被记录
a complete overhaul of how things in
组织和运行的全面革新
our world are going to be recorded organized and run.
最后 我个人认为
In the end, I personally think it’s going to be a combination
人工智能和区块链的结合将会成为我们的未来
of artificial intelligence and the blockchain that will be our future
你们怎么看呢
So what do you guys think?
你是期待事情这样发展
are you looking forward to things changing in this way?
还是犹豫不决
Or are you hesitant?
在下方写下你的想法
let me know your thoughts below Also,
此外 如果你知道
if you know someone that’s going
谁对这个话题很有兴趣
to be interested in this topic, feel free
请将这个视频发给他们
to pass this video along to them.
总之 就这样 感谢收看
Anyway,That’s it. Thanks for watching.
如果你只是偶然发现这个频道请随意订阅
If you’ve just stumbled across this channel, feel free to subscribe
这里是Dagogo 您正在收看冷流科技
This has been Dagogo, you’ve been watching ColdFusion
下一期视频见
And I’ll see you again soon for the next video.
再见了各位
Cheers guys.
祝您愉快
Have a good one
冷流科技 新想法
ColdFusion is new thinking

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视频概述

本视频介绍了区块链的重要性以及它在未来的应用方向。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

兰代

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDNN0uH2Z3o

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