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生物多样性的经济效应

Why Biodiversity Is Good For The Economy

大家好!我是《分钟地球》的艾米丽
Hi, this is Emily from MinuteEarth.
你可能已经注意到 环境保护可能……会有争议
You may have noticed that conservation can be…contentious.
无论你对蜜蜂 树 甚至跳蚤感觉如何
But no matter how you feel about bees, or trees, or even fleas,
有一种非常实际的支持保留尽可能多的生物种类的论点是
here’s one totally practical argument for keeping as many species around as possible:
生物多样性对经济有利
biodiversity is good for the economy.
例如 在最近的一项研究中
For example, in a recent study,
我要提一下的是:这项研究由《分钟地球》的作者和生态学家Peter Reich共同发布
which I should mention, was co-authored by MinuteEarth’s own writer and treecologist Peter Reich,
科学家研究了世界上大量的森林
scientists looked at TONS of forests around the world,
发现树种丰富的森林比树种贫乏的森林生长得更快更大
and found that stands with more tree species grow faster and bigger than those with fewer species.
这是有道理的
Which makes sense,
单一树种的森林获取阳光 养分和水的方式相同
trees of a single species all have the same approaches to getting light, nutrients, and water.
因此他们会互相竞争
So they end up competing with each other,
而不同的树种有各自的获取方式 因此竞争更小
while trees of different species have different approaches. So they compete less,
总体而言可以获取更多资源
and together actually use a larger portion of the available resources.
这些加起来就成了更多植被
And those gains add up to a lot more green.
和只有单一树种的森林相比 地球上的森林可以多生产至少35%的木材
The world’s logged forests produce at least 35% more timber than they would if each stand of trees had only one species,
相当于每年至少2000亿美元的额外收入
to the tune of at least 200 billion dollars in additional revenue each year.
这种多样性带来的收益至少是我们目前投入到环境保护的资金的20倍
This diversity dividend is at least 20 times more than the total amount of money we currently spend on conservation.
经济学家在其他领域也在寻找这种多样性红利
And economists are finding these diversity dividends in other places too.
比如在农场 不同的昆虫在不同的时段帮助授粉
On farm fields, for instance, different pollinators go to work at different times.
所以保持昆虫的多样性有助于确保作物结出果实换取收益 不管它们什么时候开花
So keeping a diverse set of insects around helps ensure that crops will bear fruit and cash, whenever they flower.
在湖泊和河流中 清理毒素的微生物种类越多
And in our lakes and rivers, the more kinds of toxin-munching microbes there are,
它们就能清理更多污染物
the more pollutants they can clean up.
降低每年花费在保持河道干净上的数十亿美元
Keeping down the multi-billion dollar cost of maintaining clean waterways.
当然 我们很难给各个生态系统中的生物多样性设定经济价值
Of course, it’s hard to give biodiversity a dollar value in each and every ecosystem
而且金钱也不是我们衡量自然价值的唯一方式
And money probably isn’t the only way we want to measure the value of nature.
但在很多领域 更健康 更多样的生态系统
But in lots of places, healthier, more diverse ecosystems
意味着更健康的底线
appear to translate to a healthier bottom line.
所以不论你听说了什么 钱真的可以从树上长出来 蜜蜂也可以带来钱
So despite what you may have heard, money really does grow on trees! And bees!
我们……还不确定跳蚤能不能带来钱
We’re… still not sure about fleas.
《分钟地球》由明尼苏达大学赞助
This MinuteEarth video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota,
该校所有领域的教职工都致力于解决社会面临的巨大挑战
where students faculty and staff across all fields of study are working to solve the grand challenges facing society.
本视频由明尼苏达大学科学家的研究提供支持
This video was informed by the research of University of Minnesota scientists,
包括Peter Reich、David Tillman、Forest Isbell、Sarah Hobbie以及Steve Pulasky
Peter Reich, David Tillman, Forest Isbell, Sarah Hobbie and Steve Pulasky
明尼苏达大学 探索驱动
The University of Minnesota: Driven to Discover.

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《分钟地球》之生物多样性的经济效应。

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