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中世纪绘画中的婴儿为何都看起来又老又丑? – 译学馆
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中世纪绘画中的婴儿为何都看起来又老又丑?

Why babies in medieval paintings look like ugly old men

你要去参观博物馆 这非常好
So you’re going to the museum and it’s great.
警卫员要检查你的包裹是为了确保你不会 给画作拍照
The guards check your bag to make sure you won’t, I don’t know,shoot a painting;
坐漂亮的扶梯上楼后
you go up some fancy escalators,
你会看到一些裸体雕像
you see naked statues.
然后它出现了
And then it happens.
你看到一个超级丑陋的中世纪婴儿
You see a super ugly Medieval baby.
为什么这些中世纪婴儿看起来像丑陋的中年男人
Why do medieval babies look like ugly middleaged men?
这个婴儿看起来想要告诉你
This baby looks like he wants to tell you to
船就是一个金钱陷阱
that’ a boat is just a money pit’.
这看起来好像是中世纪的艺术家们并不擅长绘画
It might seem like medieval artists were justbad at drawing.
但事实证明
But it turns out
这些中世纪艺术作品中的婴儿这么丑陋 实际上是有原因的
that babies in medieval art are actually ugly for a reason.
在文艺复兴之后
While there were breakthroughs
解剖学和透视学有了一些突破
in anatomy and perspective that happened later in the Renaissance,
在那个时期之前 丑陋的中世纪婴儿是蓄意选择的结果
ugly medieval babies were anintentional choice before that time.
如果有人让你模仿巴布罗·毕加索来作画
If somebody told you to paint like Pablo Picasso
但是你却模仿的是诺曼·洛克威尔
and you gave them Norman Rockwell,
你无疑是搞砸了
you would have screwed up.
在意大利教堂工作的艺术家们也是如此
And it’s the same way for artists working in churches in Italy.
因为这些婴儿大多是耶稣和玛丽的画像
It’s because most of these babies were depictions of Jesus and Mary.
他们受到侏儒思想的影响
They were influenced by the idea of the homunculus,
在拉丁文里是小矮人的意思
which is Latin for little man.
这些婴儿看起来像本杰明·巴顿
These babies looked like Benjamin Button
因为哲学家们相信耶稣生来就是
because philosophers believed Jesus was born
完美无缺的 并且是毫无改变的
perfectly formed and unchanged.
成年耶稣的特征在婴儿耶稣身上得到了体现
The adult Jesus was represented in the babyJesus.
直到文艺复兴时期 一切都改变了
Until the Renaissance, when everything changed.
一般 我们认为中世纪
Generally,we think of the Middle Ages lasting
大约是从5世纪持续到15世纪
from around the 5th to 15th century, and it
而且这与14世纪文艺复兴的开端有些重合
kind of overlapped the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century.
文艺复兴可能始于意大利佛罗伦萨
The Renaissance probably began in Florence Italy,
但值得注意的是
but it’s important to note that it
它的发展历经了几个世纪涉及很多国家 当时一切都进展缓慢
unfolded over centuries and countries in a time when everything moved slowly.
所以漂亮婴儿的画作并没有很快就出现在各个地方
So,it wasn’t instant beautiful babies everywhere.
不过 在风格上的确发生了变化
Still,the change in style did happen,
并且发生的原因有很多
and it happened for a couple of reasons.
像佛罗伦萨这样的地方变得越来越富有
Places like Florence were getting richer
教堂不再是唯一的
and churches weren’t the only places
可以承担起画作费用的地方
that could afford paintings.
人们可以给自己的婴儿作画
People could get their own babies painted,
他们想让自己的宝宝看起来很可爱 胖乎乎的
and they wanted them to look like cute chubby babies,
而不是像个侏儒一样
not homunculi.
因为文艺复兴都是关于古希腊文学
And because the Renaissance was all about classics,
它们着眼于希腊和罗马艺术
they looked at Greek and Roman art,
该艺术都是理想化的形式 为了美而抛弃了中世纪抽象的特点
which was all about idealized forms that ditched the medieval abstraction for beauty.
总之 重点是
Anyway,the point is
在文艺复兴之后 小天使的形象并没有显得格格不入
that after the Renaissance cherubs didn’t seem out of place, and neither
在文艺复兴席卷欧洲时 婴儿耶稣的可爱图画也没有显得格格不入
did cuter pictures of baby Jesus as the Renaissance spread through Europe.
并且 从那之后这种形式就保留了下来
And it’s kinda stayed that way since.
我们想要那些一看起来就想捏他脸颊的婴儿
We want babies who look like they need their cheeks pinched,
而不是那种一看起来就想给他们做前列腺检查的婴儿
not their prostates checked.
我们想要他们是胖嘟嘟的 可爱的
We want them chubby and cute,
并且想要那种符合我们理想型的婴儿
and we want babies that fit our ideals.
因为那些中世纪的婴儿?
Because those medieval babies?
他们长了一张只有自己母亲才会爱的脸
They have a face that only a mother can love.

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视频概述

在文艺复兴之后,小天使的形象并没有显得格格不入,在文艺复兴席卷欧洲时,婴儿耶稣的可爱图画也没有显得格格不入。因此受侏儒思想的影响,中世纪绘画中的婴儿都非常丑陋

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFcF_qfLHeQ

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