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为什么婴儿不能吃蜂蜜?

Why Babies Can't Eat Honey

这是肉毒杆菌
This is C. botulinum.
是一种能产生世界上
It’s a bacterium that can produce one of the world’s
最为致命物质的细菌
most lethal substances.
它存在于许多地方 包括土壤 花粉
It lives in lots of places including soil, pollen,
灰尘以及蜂蜜
dust, and also in honey.
但是你为什么没有因为吃蜂蜜而死去呢?
So why haven’t you died from eating this sweet treat?
因为你不是婴儿
Because you’re not a baby.
肉毒杆菌繁殖时会产生肉毒毒素
As C. botulinum grows, it produces botulinum toxin.
这和保妥适的主要成分一样
It’s the same stuff used in Botox,
但相较于被感染的食物来说 保妥适所含剂量极微
but Botox has an extremely low dose compared to infected food.
大剂量的毒素会侵袭你的神经系统
In large amounts, the toxin would attack your nervous system,
从而导致肉毒中毒
causing the illness known as botulism,
它能使人瘫痪甚至是死亡
which can lead to paralysis and even death.
因为肉毒杆菌在我们生活环境中十分常见
And since C. botulinum is so common in our environment,
所以研究者认为蜜蜂会在返回产蜜的蜂巢
researchers believe that bees pick it up on their way
途中会偶然携带上这种病菌
to the hive where they produce honey.
有研究发现肉毒杆菌
One study found C. botulinum bacteria
仅8%的蜂蜜样本含有
in about 8% of honey samples.
但是在你吃蜂蜜的时候 还是要注意
But before you purge your pantry, consider this.
我们平常碰到肉毒杆菌时 如蜂蜜中
Normally when we encounter C. Botulinum, like in honey,
它是处于休眠的
it’s dormant.
在这样休眠状态下 即便吃下它
In this sleepy state, it can’t produce the toxin.
它也不会产生毒素
Even if you ate it. Unless,
除非你未满周岁
of course, you’re less than 1 year old.
不同于儿童和成人的是 当肉毒杆菌
When C. botulinum enters a baby’s large intestine,
进入到婴儿大肠中后 它就苏醒了
it comes alive because unlike children and adults,
不满周岁的婴儿并没有吃过
babies less than 1 year old haven’t been eating
真正的固态食物
real solid foods.
他们一直喝的是奶
They’ve been drinking milk.
但是到了4至6个月大时
But when babies are around 4 to 6 months old,
她们就断了母乳
they stop drinking human milk, and they start eating
开始尝试其他的他们未曾接触过的食物
other foods that they’ve never had before.
最终导致他们的肠道菌群突然变化
As a result, their gut microbes change very abruptly,
正是在婴儿肠道的这段过渡期间
and it’s during this transition period in the baby’s gut
致命的肉毒杆菌便开始
that the lethal C. botulinum bacteria are free to grow
自由地生长繁殖 产生毒素
and produce the toxin.
当毒素进入到婴儿的血流中
As the toxin enters the baby’s bloodstream,
它便会阻碍运动神经
it blocks the ability of motor nerves to release acetylcholine,
释放向肌肉传递神经信号的
a chemical messenger
一种叫乙酰胆碱的化学信使
that sends nerve signals to muscles.
最终 婴儿的肌肉会慢慢麻痹
As a result, the baby starts to lose control of muscles
并且出现疲乏无力的状况
and appears tired and floppy.
随着更多的毒素涌入血流
And as more toxin enters the bloodstream, the muscles
呼吸肌和口咽部肌肉便无法正常工作
that control swallowing and breathing stop working.
幸运的是 婴儿型肉毒中毒十分罕见
Fortunately, infant botulism is not very common,
且因为蜂蜜而引起的婴儿型肉毒中毒少之又少
and infant botulism due to honey is even rarer.
在美国每年不超过100例
Fewer than 100 cases occur in the US each year,
尽管想要精确查明这些案例中
and while it’s difficult to pinpoint the source
这种细菌的来源十分困难
of the bacterium in many cases,
但专家们仍旧认为15%都是蜂蜜引起的
experts think that honey accounts for 15 %.
因此 如果你的宝宝出现了虚弱的症状
So it’s important that if your infant shows signs
请尽快带他们去
of weakness, you take them to be evaluated
专业的医师那里进行检查
by medical professionals immediately.
在以往一些病案中
In some cases, doctors can administer
医生能给予有效的抗毒素
an effective antitoxin,
但一般几周最多一个月婴儿便可康复
but it can take babies weeks or a month to recover.
美国食品药监管理局建议 在婴儿周岁以后
The FDA recommends waiting until your baby’s first birthday
再给他们喂食蜂蜜或是其他
to feed them honey or any products
含有蜂蜜的食品
that are filled with or dipped in honey.

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视频概述

我们常吃的蜂蜜,却不能给婴儿吃,为什么呢?一起来了解一下吧

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UVZETo7JNg4

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