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为什么婴儿不能喝水? – 译学馆
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为什么婴儿不能喝水?

Why Babies Can't Drink Water

每个人的一生中都有一段仅是喝水便会致命的阶段
There is a time in every person’s life when drinking water is deadly.
光是饮用几盎司就足以致死
Even as much as a fewounces is enough to kill.
婴儿为什么不能喝水?
一般健康成人的体重有55到60%是水
The average healthy adult is made up of 55 to 60 % water.
另一方面 一般婴儿的体重有约75%是水
The average baby, on the otherhand, is roughly 75% water.
正因为这个差异 使得婴儿不应该
And that difference is whybabies shouldn’t drink water
在六个月大之前喝水
before they’re at least six months old.
无论是水龙头的水 井水 或是泉水
Not from the tap or a well or a spring.
只要是水都不能喝
Plain water is just plain off limits.
每个人的肾脏能够负荷的水量有限
You see, everyone’s kidneys have a limit to how much water they can handle.
一旦超过限制 过量的水便会回流到血管
Break that limit, and the excess water will back up into your bloodstream,
把你血液里的盐分(或称钠)稀释掉
where it dilutes the salt, or sodium, in your blood.
一旦血液里的钠含量低于每加仑0.4盎司
Once your blood dips below 0.4ounces of sodium per gallon,
你将会面临得低钠血症的风险
you’re at risk of a conditioncalled Hyponatremia.
当细胞为了让血液钠含量恢复正常
It happens when your cellstry to return sodium levels
而试图吸收多余水分
to normal by absorbing the extra water
细胞就会像一颗水球一样膨胀
and swell up like a waterballoon in the process,
从而引起意识模糊 呕吐 肌肉痉挛等并发症
causing complications like confusion, vomiting and muscle spasms.
如果在赛跑时短时间内摄取过多水分
Hyponatremia is common in marathon runners
却没有摄取足够的钠以平衡他们的血液
who drink too much too fast during a race
马拉松赛跑者就更容易患上低钠血症
without also providing enough sodium to balance out their blood.
而如果你持续的喝 那些多余的水分
And if you keep drinking,that excess water
最终会达到你的脑细胞
will eventually reachthe cells in your brain.
这时 你就陷入了严重的水中毒
By this point, you have a dangerous case of water intoxication,
每年大约有20万美国人会遭到水中毒
which affects roughly 200,000 Americans each year.
在水中毒的影响下 脑细胞会膨胀
It occurs when your brain cells swell,
在头骨内部产生压力
which builds up pressure inside your skull
这会导致癫痫发作 脑部损伤
that can lead to seizures, brain damage, and,
最严重的情况是死亡
in sever cases, death.
不过不用担心 对于一个成年人来说
But don’t worry, dying fromwater intoxication
要死于水中毒是相当困难的
is extremely hard fora fully-grown human.
一个成人必须每隔几小时喝下2.5到5加仑的水
An adult would have todrink 2.5 to 5 gallons
才能够达到致死的程度
every few hours to reach that point.
不过对于新生儿来说就完全不同了
But for newborns, it’s a different story.
他们肾脏的大小只有成人的一半
Their kidneys are abouthalf the size of an adult’s,
所以他们本来就不能喝很多水
so they can’t hold muchwater to begin with.
只是几盎司的水就能够引发问题
And it takes just a fewounces to cause problems.
此外 肾脏未完全发育 不能有效地过滤水
On top of that, their kidneys aren’t developed enough yet to properly filter water,
因此任何进入他们身体的水分
so any water that enters their body
都会到达循环系统 把血液稀释
ends up in the circulatory system, where it dilutes their blood
导致他们的含水量增加7到8%
and increases their water content by 7 to 8 %.
不过 不是只有直接喝水才会构成危险
But it’s not just drinking straight H2O that poses a threat.
事实上 大部分婴儿水中毒的案件
In fact, most cases of waterintoxication in infants
甚至不涉及到一杯水
don’t even involve a glass of water.
一个常见的错误 就是不小心过度稀释配方奶
A common mistake is whenpeople dilute baby formula
或者是父母让婴儿
too much by accident, or when parents
上上下下的浸泡在游泳池当中
dunk their infants up anddown in a swimming pool,
导致婴儿吞下过多的水
and in the process the infantgulps in too much water.
非常重要的是
It’s important that
当你的婴儿出现水中毒的征兆时
if your baby is showing signs of water intoxication
你必须立刻将他们送往医院
that you take them tothe hospital immediately,
在那里 医生会进行静脉输液
where a doctor will likelyprovide some form of fluids
比如生理盐水
like intravenous saline solution
让婴儿的钠含量提升到正常水平
to bring the infant’ssodium levels up to normal.

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视频概述

婴儿的肾脏比普通成人小一半,这也是为什么婴儿不能喝水的原因。家长应该注意预防让婴儿喝过量的水以免水中毒

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DQv80biYbs

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