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我们为何对自己的东西情有独钟

Why are we so attached to our things? - Christian Jarrett

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Light up the world
目睹婴儿因拿不到 自认为属于他的东西
After witnessing the violent rage shown by babies
而暴怒的结果之后
whenever deprived of an item they considered their own,
约翰·皮亚杰 一位儿童心理学研究的发起者
Jean Piaget, a founding father of child psychology,
对于人性 有了其独到的见解
observed something profound about human nature.
我们的归属权意识很早就显露出来
Our sense of ownership emerges incredibly early.
我们为什么会这么“粘”呢
Why are we so clingy?
在心理学上有一个得到确认的现象
There’s a well-established phenomenon in psychology
被称作禀赋效应
known as the endowment effect
我们一旦拥有某项物品 就对该物品有更高的评价
where we value items much more highly just as soon as we own them.
在一个著名的案例中
In one famous demonstration,
学生被给与两种选择 咖啡杯
students were given a choice between a coffee mug
或是巧克力条
or a Swiss chocolate bar
来作为帮助研究的奖励
as a reward for helping out with research.
一半学生选择了咖啡杯 另一半选择了巧克力
Half chose the mug, and half chose the chocolate.
这就是说 他们认为这两种奖励价值相当
That is, they seemed to value the two rewards similarly.
先给另一部分学生咖啡杯
Other students were given a mug first
然后再给他们一次意外的机会去交换巧克力条
and then a surprise chance to swap it for a chocolate bar,
只有百分之十一的人愿意交换
but only 11% wanted to.
另外一个组先给巧克力
Yet another group started out with chocolate,
然后 多数人都选择留下它而非交换
and most preferred to keep it rather than swap.
换句话说 学生几乎都认为他们开始得到的东西更有价值
In other words, the students nearly always put greater value
无论开始时给他们的是什么奖励
on whichever reward they started out with.
这与自我感知和自认所属物之间
Part of this has to do with how quickly we form connections
建立联系的速度有一定的关系
between our sense of self and the things we consider ours.
这点甚至见于神经系统的层面
That can even be seen at the neural level.
一次实验中 神经系统科学家扫描了参与者的大脑
In one experiment, neuroscientists scanned participants’ brains
同时将物品分派到贴着“我的”的篮子里
while they allocated various objects either to a basket labeled ‘mine,’
和贴着“亚力克斯的”的篮子里
or another labeled, ‘Alex’s.’
当参与者看到他们的新物品时
When participants subsequently looked at their new things,
他们的大脑在某块区域表现得更活跃
their brains showed more activity
通常我们在想到自己的时候
in a region that usually flickers into life
这块区域也会变得活跃
whenever we think about ourselves.
我们喜欢自己物品的另一个理由
Another reason we’re so fond of our possessions
是从小我们就觉得它们非同寻常
is that from a young age we believe they have a unique essence.
心理学家通过一种错觉的运用 向我们证明了这点
Psychologists showed us this by using an illusion
他们使三到六岁的儿童相信
to convince three to six-year-olds they built a copying machine,
他们制造了能够完美复制任何物品的机器
a device that could create perfect replicas of any item.
当让孩子们在最喜爱的玩具
When offered a choice between their favorite toy
和精致的复制品之间选择的时候
or an apparently exact copy,
大多数孩子还是更喜欢原来的
the majority of the children favored the original.
事实上 他们经常担心带回来的是复制品
In fact, they were often horrified at the prospect of taking home a copy.
这种对物品的奇妙想法 并不会随着年龄的增长而消失
This magical thinking about objects isn’t something we grow out of.
甚至会随着年龄增长“变本加厉”
Rather it persists into adulthood while becoming ever more elaborate.
比如 认为那些曾经为名人所拥有的物品上
For example, consider the huge value placed on items
附着巨大价值
that have been owned by celebrities.
就好像买家相信 他们购买的这些东西
It’s as if the buyers believed the objects they’d purchased
被以某种方式注入了原来名主人的实质
were somehow imbued with the essence of their former celebrity owners.
由于类似的原因 我们中很多人都不愿舍弃家中
For similar reasons, many of us are reluctant to part with family heirlooms
那些能够帮助我们回忆往昔点滴的老物件
which help us feel connected to lost loved ones.
这些信念甚至能改变我们对物质世界的看法
These beliefs can even alter our perception of the physical world
改变我们的运动能力
and change our athletic abilities.
在一项最近的研究中 参与者被告知他们所使用的高尔夫推杆
Participants in a recent study were told they were using a golf putter
曾经为冠军本·柯蒂斯所拥有
once owned by the champion Ben Curtis.
在实验当中
During the experiment,
他们比握着标准推杆的参与者
they perceived the hole as being about a centimeter larger
感觉球洞变大了一厘米
than controlled participants using a standard putter
而且他们也有稍多的推杆进球
and they sank slightly more putts.
尽管归属权意识在人生早年已出现 文化也起到了一定的作用
Although feelings of ownership emerge early in life, culture also plays a part.
比如最近发现的 居住在坦桑尼亚北部的哈扎人
For example, it was recently discovered that Hadza people of northern Tanzania
与现代文明相隔绝
who are isolated from modern culture
他们就不会显示禀赋效应
don’t exhibit the endowment effect.
那可能是因为他们生活在一个平等的社会
That’s possibly because they live in an egalitarian society
几乎所有的东西都是共享的
where almost everything is shared.
另一个极端就是 有时我们对所有物的依恋太离谱
At the other extreme, sometimes our attachment to our things can go too far.
囤积症的部分起因是存在一种
Part of the cause of hoarding disorder is an exaggerated sense of responsibility
保护自己物品的夸张的责任感
and protectiveness toward one’s belongings.
这就是有囤积症的人很难随便丢弃任何物件的原因
That’s why people with this condition find it so difficult to throw anything away.
现在我们还需拭目以待的是
What remains to be seen today
我们对待所有物的天性
is how the nature of our relationship with our possessions
将会如何随着数字科技的兴起而改变
will change with the rise of digital technologies.
很多人预测实体书和音乐会走向消亡
Many have forecast the demise of physical books and music,
但至少今天看来 这样说还为时尚早
but for now, at least, this seems premature.
或许始终都会存在一些独一无二的东西
Perhaps there will always be something uniquely satisfying
我们想将其放在手中 声称“归我所有”
about holding an object in our hands and calling it our own.

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视频概述

好吧,看看我们的橱柜中是否还保存孩时的玩具:没有胳膊的木偶或是坏掉的变形金刚?为何保存至今而不丢弃呢?答案在这里。

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启点—飞雪群山

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2_by0rp5q0

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