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为什么有人深陷邪教? – 译学馆
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为什么有人深陷邪教?

Why Are We Obsessed with Cults?

感谢audible网站对PBS的支持
We’d like to thank audible for supporting PBS.
1978年11月18日
On November 18th 1978,
超过900名人民圣殿教教徒
over 900 members of the People’s Temple
在圭亚那的琼斯镇公社集体自杀
committed mass suicide at the Jonestown commune in Guyana.
在患有妄想症的吉姆·琼斯的领导下
Under the paranoid leadership of Jim Jones,
教徒们(包括大约300名孩子)
the members (including approximately 300 children)
喝下了掺有氰化物的饮料
drank cyanide laced juice.
由于他们的强制手段和恶行
Jonestown had long been under scrutiny from Guyanese and American officials
琼斯镇长期受到圭亚那和美国官员的监视
for their coercive tactics and misdeeds.
据报道 人民圣殿教的教徒被迫与家人隔离
Members of the People’s Temple reported being separated from their families,
教徒的收入和住所都被教会掌控着
having their earnings and homes seized by the church,
并且遭受到残忍的身体暴力
and being subjected to brutal physical violence.
教徒们还谋杀了国会议员利奥·莱安
Members also murdered Congressman Leo Ryan
以及三名曾前往这块殖民地采访的记者
and three reporters who had arrived at the colony to question
他们怀疑有美国外籍成员被虐待或被拘禁
whether its American ex-pat members were being abused or held against their will.
琼斯策划了史上最大规模之一的自杀
Orchestrating one of the most deadly mass suicides in history,
琼斯这种虐待 思想控制和暴力行径
Jones’story of abuse, mind control and violence
将永远被世人所唾弃
lives on in infamy in our collective consciousness.
然而像琼斯镇大屠杀这类的故事
While stories like the massacre at Jonestown
代表着邪教教化的最极端结果
represent the most extreme outcome of cult indoctrination,
重读这个故事让我陷入深思:
revisiting the story did get me wondering:
何时起我们的文化开始沉迷于
when did our culture become so obsessed with
搜寻关于邪教的信息?
ferreting out information about cults?
我们如何将邪教与宗教区分开来
And how did we start distinguishing them from religions,
或与其他因共同爱好聚集的自选组织相区分?
or any other type of self selecting group with a shared interest?
在 “邪教”尚未成为无处不在的通用语之前
Before it was a word that slipped into the lingua franca to ubiquitously describe any organization
即用来描述那些有着难以示人的议程和“看到光明”的狂热追随者的任何组织
with a shady agenda and blissed out followers who have “seen the light”,
20世纪60年代末到90年代初 邪教是最大威胁之一
cults were one of the big fears of the late 1960s to early 1990s.
那这些组织是如何从暗处走到舞台中央的呢?
So how did these groups exit the shadows and enter center stage?
在开始解释前我们首先应该了解
So to get things started we should first establish
研究邪教结构和心理的人
how people who study the structure and psychology of cults
倾向于如何定义这些组织:
tend to define these organizations:
首先 处于食物链顶端的是一位魅力十足的领导者
First at the top of the food chain is a charismatic leader
对他的追随者来说他是绝对正确的
who is infallible to their followers
并且不能对其任何行为做出负面评价
and cannot be judged negatively for any of their actions.
他们的话就是组织的法律和支柱
Their word is the law and organizing backbone of the group.
其次是教徒们都是被这些组织的允诺吸引
Second are members who are drawn in with promises of community,
清晰阐述生命里更深层的问题和精神友谊
clarity about life’s larger questions and spiritual fellowship
最终发现自己被邪教领导者完全掌控
eventually finding themselves under the leader’s complete control.
组织成员可划分为
Members of the organization
从绝对忠诚到不大忠诚
can range from the die hard faithful to the less committed
再到慢慢融入的新人
and slowly integrated newbies.
教徒能够在组织内部晋升等级
Members can move up the organization
来获取领导者承诺的更多福利
to have greater access to the benefits bestowed on them by the leader.
第三 拥有对组织永远忠诚
And third, there are members who remain loyal to the group
最终丧失个性和自我意识
eventually align their personality and their sense of self
与领导者和组织融为一体的成员
with the leader and with the organization as a whole.
这些仅是一个粗略的纲要
These are just a rough outline
是我从心理学家的报告中挑选出来的
of what I’ve culled from psychologists’ reports,
你有理由怀疑 所有的这些是否听起来都太模糊而感到难以证实
and you’re right to wonder if all of this sounds a bit too amorphous to pin down.
因为大多数邪教组织
Because while most of the cults that
都是以暴力和危险姿态进入公众视野
enter into the public consciousness are violent or dangerous,
但并非每个邪教都是如此
not EVERY cult is.
那些最危险的邪教组织
The ones that are the most dangerous are ones
往往具有某种胁迫或控制因素
where there is some element of coercion or control.
这包括 要求成员交出银行账户信息
This can include requiring members to turn over their bank account information,
让他们卖掉自己的房子并搬进混住的大院
making them sell their homes and move into a shared compounds,
或者让他们屈服于心理或身体的暴力
or submitting them to psychological and physical violence.
但其他被列出的特征
But the other listed traits
绝大部分组织也具备同种特性
can actually be applied to a super wide range of organizations,
包括一些传统意义上广为接受的宗教组织
including some traditionally accepted and recognized religions.
因为许多宗教都拥有一个绝对正确的领导
Because lots of religions have an infallible leader,
他们会承诺一个信仰团体
make promises of a faith based community,
并鼓励你将自己的个性融入大团体
and encourage you to enmesh your personality with that of the larger group.
因此 人们区分邪教与宗教最主要的方式
So the biggest way that people differentiate between cults and religions
通常是根据其规模
is usually based on size.
全球拥有3百万信徒? 是宗教
Have 3 million followers world wide? Religion.
每晚都有15个人在荒郊野外的地下室集会? 是邪教
Have 15 folks who gather every night in a basement in the middle of nowhere? Cult.
他们的成员数量少 但十分精确
And it is also precisely their small numbers,
他们偶尔的神秘神话
their sometimes secretive mythologies
和地下(隐藏在公众视野外)运转方式
and their underground (but hidden in plain sight) methods
引起了公众对邪教的迷恋和恐惧
that drove the public fascination with and fear of cults.
随着越来越多的故事出现在新闻报道当中
And as more and more stories began to crop up in the news,
邪教作为一个巨大而隐秘的威胁
cults — as a great secret threat —
在20世纪下半叶成为了一种巨大的瘾癖
became a disproportionate fixation in the latter half of the 20th century.
邪教教化过程的最早观察者之一
One of the earliest observers of the cult indoctrination process
(后来流行的说法是“洗脑”)
(which later became more popularly known as “brainwashing”)
是玛格丽特·塔勒·辛格博士
was Dr. Margaret Thaler Singer.
在20世纪50年代 辛格博士通过采访美国战犯
Dr. Singer started studying mind control techniques in the 1950s
开始研究精神控制技术
by interviewing American prisoners of war
这些战犯在朝鲜战争期间被逮捕
who were captured during the Korean War
曾受尽操控折磨
and manipulated or tortured.
她后来将研究领域扩展到本土邪教
She later expanded her work to include studies of homegrown cults,
出版了大量关于她的发现的文章和书籍
publishing numerous articles and books on her findings.
但是她对心理和治疗领域的贡献
But her contributions to the field of psychology and therapy
却是具有争议的
weren’t without controversy.
幸格博士在女继承人帕蒂·赫斯特一案中成为人们关注的焦点
Dr. Singer came to prominence in the case of heiress Patty Hearst,
帕蒂·赫斯特于1974年被绑架
who in 1974 was kidnapped
是一个叫共生解放军的团伙干的
by a group called the Symbionese Liberation Army.
后来赫斯特和该团体的其它成员参加了一次武装抢劫银行
Hearst later participated an armed bank robbery with other members of the group.
不是所有人都赞同辛格的访谈结论
Not everyone agreed with Singer’s interviews
即该团伙违背赫斯特意愿 绑架她
that Hearst was held against her will
实际上她不必为自己的行为负责
and effectively not responsible for her actions
因为她已经被“洗脑”了
because she had been “brainwashed”
共生解放军成员不断折磨她 让她变成了“僵尸”
and turned into a “zombie” through repeated torture by SLA members,
还威胁她如果她不参与行动就得死
who threatened her with death if she did not join their cause.
证词最终证明是不成立的
The testimony ultimately proved unsuccessful
赫斯特被定罪并判处7年监禁
and Hearst was convicted and sentenced to 7 years in prison.
但是多亏了辛格博士
But thanks to Dr. Singer,
一个人的心智能够被
the concept that someone could have their mind altered
具有说服力的领导或传统的群体思维改变
by either a persuasive leader or by good old fashioned groupthink
这一观点如今才能成为共识
was now at the forefront of everyone’s minds.
相关影像开始通过电视屏幕在全世界传播
And related images were splashed across TV screens around the world,
例如赫斯特手持机枪的照片
like Hearst wielding machine guns,
或是1969年被拘捕后的曼森家族成员
or members of the Manson family after they were arrested in 1969
被捕原因是谋杀了5个人 企图挑起种族战争
for murdering 5 people in an attempt to start a race war
由他们的领导者查尔斯·曼森密谋策划
engineered by their leader Charles Manson.
不久 其他一些备受瞩目的邪教虐待案件
Soon other high profile cases of cult abuse
也开始在全国范围内蔓延
started to fire across the country.
有些指控的涉及面很广
Some of the accusations ranged widely,
比如文鲜明1954年创建的统一教
like the financial fraud and tax evasion of The Unification Church
被指控金融诈骗和漏税
founded in 1954 by Sun Myong Moon.
还有一些更加暴力的犯罪事件
Then there were more violent crimes
诸如绑架和给儿童下药
such as kidnapping and drugging children
在澳大利亚邪教领导者安妮·汉密尔顿·伯恩一案中
like in the case of Australian cult leader Anne Hamilton-Byrne,
团体的首领被称为“家庭”
the head of a group called “The Family”.
但其他案件针对“邪教”的唯一指控是
But in other cases the only accusation that arose against a “cult” was that
他们有些古怪 但基本上是无害组织
they were a slightly odd but ultimately harmless organization.
但是在20世纪70年代也形成一种风气
But it was also the climate of the 1970s
人们对邪教和邪教行为的恐惧达到前所未有的高峰
that made fear of cults and cult like behavior reach an all time high,
部分原因是 主流人士对新兴反主流文化的强烈反对
propelled in part by mainstream backlash to emerging countercultures.
(如果你想知道20世纪60年代发生的全部冲突
(If you want a run down on all of the emerging conflicts of the 1960s
看完本视频后请查看我们的播单《20世纪60年代的革命》)
check out our “Revolutionary 1960s” playlist when you’re done with this video).
随着人们开始回推主流文化
As people began to push back on the dominant culture
支持诸如平等 革命 反抗等保守的价值观
and its conservative values in favor of principles like equality, revolution, and rebellion,
邪教也渗透到相同的对话中
cults permeated the same conversations.
因为20世纪70年代邪教的一些行为模式
Because some of the behavior patterns of these 1970s cults
也和其它(良性且合法)反文化群体相似或相同
were also similar or identical to other (benign and legitimate) countercultural groups.
居住在自给自足的农场里
Living on self sustaining farms,
简化你的生活方式 集体关心你的邻居
simplifying your lifestyle, caring collectively for your neighbor,
放弃世俗意义上的财产
giving away your worldly possessions
致力于过共同生活
and committing to communal living
经常是反文化群体华丽修辞的一大部分
were often a big part of the rhetoric of counter culture groups
他们确实做了许多工作来推动形成积极的社区成果
that actually did a lot to promote positive community outcomes.
例如黑豹党
For example the Black Panther Party,
在黑人社区建立了免费午餐项目和医疗诊所
established free lunch programs and medical clinics in black communities.
20世纪60年代和70年代
Also non-religious communes sprung up around the US
美国涌现的非宗教公社数量是有史以来最多的
at an all time high in the 1960s and 70s.
历史学家蒂莫西·米勒指出
Historian Timothy Miller notes that
研究公社最棘手的事情之一
one of the trickiest things about studying communes
就是准确预估在特定时间内 到底有多少人待在公社里
is estimating exactly how many people were even staying on them at any given time.
同样地 邪教成员的数量也很难确定
Similarly it’s difficult to pin down hard numbers on cults,
部分是因为它们的隐秘性
in part because of their secrecy
部分是因为我们永远无法真正
and in part because we can never truly agree
在定义“什么是邪教”这一点上达成一致
on the same running definition of what a cult is.
尽管无法确定这几十年间
Despite not being able to pin down the exact number of people
某个时点生活在公社里的准确人数
who lived at a commune at some point during these decades,
但是在广大群众中
in the broader public,
公社成员经常被视为
commune members were often branded as
与社会脱离的边缘怪胎
fringe oddballs who had peeled off from the rest of society.
听起来耳熟吗?
Sound familiar?
那是因为这两个分类有部分重叠
Well that’s because there was some overlap in the two categories.
所以 从旁观者的角度很难说
So from the outside looking in it was hard to say
你的三表哥是去农场种植有机水果了?
if your 3rd cousin had gone to plant organic fruits on a farm
还是被洗脑进入了一家更邪恶的电力企业?
or if they were being indoctrinated into a more sinister off the grid enterprise.
所以 美国人早已经对某些人感到不安
So Americans were already uneasy about people
即那些逃离主流社会隐居起来 追求更高目标的人
ditching mainstream society to seek a higher purpose in seclusion.
再加上那些备受瞩目的邪教谋杀虐待案件
And coupled with that were these high profile cases of cult led murders and abuse
经常发生在公社里面 就像琼斯镇那样
which often times took place on communes, like Jonestown.
结果就是邪教造成的恐慌不断高涨
The result: a panic that cult enrollment was on the rise.
此外 想要帮助邪教成员的心理学家和精神病学家
Additionally psychologists and psychiatrists who were looking to help cult members
经常与失去亲人的家庭协调合作
often coordinated with bereaved family members
他们向媒体发出情感诉求
to make emotional appeals to the media
以便那些被洗脑的孩子能够安全回家
for the safe return of their indoctrinated children.
所以“解洗脑”成了“洗脑”的对立面
So “Deprogramming” became the b-side to “brainwashing.”
它被认为是帮助前邪教成员回归社会
It was posited as a way to help integrate former cult members back into society
摆脱邪教控制并重建思想过程的一种方式
and to reorder their thought processes after they were free from cult control.
但是实际上这些方式被证实具有很大争议
But even these methods proved to be very controversial.
在2009年的一期TED演讲中
In her 2009 TED talk,
一位名叫黛安·本斯科特的作家 也曾是统一教成员
author and former member of the Unification Church Diane Benscoter
讲述了她如何在17岁时加入该组织
notes how she joined the group when she was 17
并在组织里呆了好几年
and remained a member for several years
后来她的家人开始介入并带她做了“解洗脑”
before her family intervened and had her deprogrammed.
在那之后 她作为一个解洗脑人 工作了5年
After that she became a “deprogrammer” herself for 5 years.
她的大多数案件都是非自愿的
Most her cases were “involuntary”
意思就是家庭成员将邪教成员带离组织
meaning that family members took the member of the cult away from the group
并在一个安全的地方 隔离一星期
and they were isolated in “safe places” for about a week.
可能这听起来有点像绑架
Which may sound a lot like kidnapping.
因为它确实是 有原因的绑架
Because it kind of was kidnapping with a cause.
本斯科特指出她曾经因被控绑架而被逮捕
Benscoter notes that she actually was arrested for kidnapping
这导致她放弃了这项工作
which led her to turn away from the work.
邪教也会用同样的方法引人入教
So the same way that were used to bring someone into a cult
这也能让解洗脑者开始动摇 并因此被捕
could also shake them loose and have the deprogrammer arrested.
20世纪70年代末
By the end of the 1970s
在过去几十年涌现并席卷全国的社区生活逐渐式微
the surge of communal living that had swept the nation in the previous decades was on the decline.
随着20世纪80年代渐渐远去
And as the 1980s wound its way towards the 1990s,
邪教作为我们社会的隐秘威胁 人们对它的兴趣
the bubble of interest in cults as the great secret threat to our society
开始趋于平缓并最终消退
started to plateau and finally subside.
1983年 一群心理学家
In 1983 a group of psychologists
在美国心理协会的指导和辛格博士的带领下
under the direction of the American Psychological Association and led by Dr. Singer
提出了精神控制技术的治疗和研究建议
made recommendations for the treatment and study of mind control techniques.
但研究成果却不为APA所接受
But the study’s findings were rejected by the APA
他们质疑研究的严谨性
who questioned the rigor of the research
以致后来辛格博士起诉了他们 但没有成功
leading Dr. Singer to later unsuccessfully sue them.
也有一些教会和组织开始发声
Also some churches and organizations began to say that
将他们的团体描述成邪教 不仅是诽谤
describing their groups as cults was libelous
还阻碍了他们的宗教信仰自由
and violated their religious freedom.
并且在邪教的识别 合法性和一系列诉讼中存在内部争议
And so amidst internal disputes over recognition and validity and a flurry of lawsuits
作为一个一直存在的威胁 公众对现实世界中邪教的兴趣已经降低
the public interest in real world cults as an ever present threat declined.
但即使邪教接管社会的想法
But even though the idea of cults taking over society
更像是一个抽象的概念
became more of an abstract idea
而不是21世纪的一个紧迫威胁
than a pressing fear by the 21st century,
对这些阴暗组织的迷恋依然存在于今天的流行文化当中
fascination with these shadowy organizations persists in popular culture today.
在研究了历史先例后 我有理由猜测
I’d take an educated guess and say that after studying the historical antecedents,
我们对邪教的持续好奇来自一些不同的冲动
our continued curiosity about cults stems from a few different impulses:
首先 关于琼斯镇 帕特·赫斯特 查尔斯·曼森
First, the stories of Jonestown, Patty Hearst, Charles Manson,
和其他人的故事可能是历史 但却不是古老的历史
and others may be history but they’re not ancient history.
因此我们离这些故事很远而无法观察他们
So we’re far enough away from the stories to observe them
和被他们所吓到
and be frightened by them,
但仍然足够近到让我们拥有这些事件发生时的鲜活记忆
but still close enough to have living memories of when these things occurred.
在社区中幸存或参与其中仍活着的那些人
Those who survived the communities or participated in them are still alive
仍在通过媒体向全世界传递他们的证言
and still giving their testimony to the rest of the world via the media.
其次 关于邪教的问题通常是
Second, the question of cults is usually
“它可能发生在我身上吗?
“could it also be me?
我也可能被轻易地控制思想吗?”
Am I also potentially susceptible to mind control?”
没有人真正知道问题的答案
And no one really knows the answer to that.
所有人都会想象 自己是具有独立思想的
We’d all like to imagine that we’re independent minded,
有着坚定的意志 不会被欺骗
strong willed, and impervious to deception.
但邪教成员的故事(通常)
But the stories of cult members are (usually)
和我们自己的故事 相对来说是相同的
relatively identical to our own.
这就是我们不能置之不理的部分原因
And that’s part of why we can’t look away.
感谢audible网站对PBS的支持
We’d like to thank audible for supporting PBS,
audible网站的有声读物精选
audible selections of audio books,
包括《audible ORIGINALS》
including audible ORIGINALS,
音频标题由来自世界各地讲故事的人创造
audio titles created by storytellers from all around the world.
例如《女王》 已故伟大的艾瑞莎·弗兰克林自传
for example, The Queen, the autobiography of the late great Aretha Franklin,
访问AUDIBLE.COM/ORIGINOFEVERYTHING
visit AUDIBLE.COM/ORIGINOFEVERYTHING
或者编辑短信“溯本求源”到500 500 了解更多内容
or text “ORIGINOFEVERYTHING” to 500 500 to learn more,
拨打电话簿上的号码能随时联系到他们
numbers on the books can acess them anytime
了解更多请访问AUDIBLE.COM/ORIGINOFEVERYTHING
to learn more visit AUDIBLE.COM/ORIGINOFEVERYTHING,
或编辑短信“溯本求源”到500 500
or text “ORIGINOFEVERYTHING” to 500 500.
你怎么看呢?
So what do you think?
想为这个 会把你脑子
Want to add something to this chilling tale of groups
洗一洗 拧一拧 晾一晾的团体
that can wash your mind clean,
的可怕故事加点料?
ring it out and hang it up to dry?
请务必查看下面列出的作品列表
Be sure to check out the works cited list down below,
并留下评论和问题 我每周都会阅读
and to leave those comments and questions that I love to read every week.
如果你喜欢《溯本求源》 想看更多视频
And if you like Origin of Everything and you want to see more,
一定要在Youtube上订阅我们
be sure to subscribe on Youtube,
记得在脸书 Instagram 和推特上关注我们
follow us on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter
我们下次再见
and I’ll catch you guys here next.

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视频概述

邪教那么恐怖,为什么还经常有人深陷其中?我们该怎么判断一个组织是不是邪教呢?邪教和宗教的区别是什么?该视频会给您一个详细回答。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

三十四

审核员

审核员_SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QIN9CO8JOYU

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