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为什么会有两个刚果?

Why are there two Congos?

你曾经想过为什么会有两个刚果嘛
Have you ever wondered why there are two Congos?
在中非
In central Africa, there are two countries which both
有两个名字很像的国家
have very similar names:
刚果民主共和国和它的邻居
the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and its neighbour,
更小的那个叫做刚果共和国
the much smaller country called the Republicof the Congo.
有时为了区分这俩
Sometimes to differentiate the two,
我们通过参看它们的首都名
they’re referred to by the name of their capital cities,
刚果-金沙萨 和 更加常用的刚果-布拉柴维尔
Congo-Kinshasa and the much more commonlyused Congo-Brazzaville.
那为什么这两个国家
So why do these countries
会有几乎一样的名字呢
have basically the same name?
他们现在的名字和国界
Well the names and indeed the borders
都来源于欧洲殖民时期
of the modern-day countries both come from the colonial
他们的殖民国是比利时和法国
European times. The two countries were Belgian and French colonies,
刚果这个名字
and the name Congo was
都被比利时和法国用于自己殖民地的命名
independently used by both Belgium and France for their colony,
取自刚果河
named after the River Congo,
这条河组成了两个殖民地
which formed a large part of the border
也是如今两国的大部分边界
between the two colonies and today the two countries.
虽然河流的名字实际取自
Although the name of the river was actually taken
刚果王国
from Kingdom of Congo, an African kingdom
这是一个存于14世纪后期的非洲王国
which existed from the around late 14th century.
在1884年柏林会议期间
During the Berlin conference of 1884
欧洲列强瓜分非洲大陆
in which the European powers divided the continent
当时的比利时和法国
of Africa, Belgium and France were awarded
得到了今天这两个刚果
the lands which today are the two countries of Congo.
当时比利时的
Well, the situation with Belgium
情况实际上要更复杂一点
was actually a little more complicated than that,
刚果直到1908年才成为比利时殖民地
Congo didn’t actually became a Belgian colony until 1908.
在这之前 刚果被称作刚果自由邦
Before that, it was known as the
且实际上是个公司国家
Congo Free State and was actually a corporate
由国王利奥波德二世私人拥有
state which was privately owned by King Leopold II.
他说服了国际社会
He convinced the international community the
他应该成为这片土地的主人
he should be the owner of the land because
因为他参与人道主义工作
of the humanitarian work he was involved in,
且不为牟利
and was not in it for profit.
然而事实
However as it
相差甚远
turned out… this couldn’t have been furtherfrom the truth.
在他的短期统治中
There were so many atrocities
发生了非常多的暴行
committed during his short reign
这段时间有时被称为
that this period is sometimes referred to as the “ Congo
“刚果恐怖”
Horrors ”. It was
因此 他只能不情愿地放弃殖民地
for this reason the he had to give up the colony, which was reluctantly
继而成为比利时属地
annexed by Belgium.
而较小的刚果共和国
The smaller country, the Republic of the Congo,
当时被称作法属刚果
was at the time known as French Congo, although
虽然之后它又被划分为
this was later reorganised as part
法属赤道非洲的一部分
of French Equatorial Africa, and sometimes referred
即当时的中央刚果
to as Middle Congo during this time.
实际上还有第三个刚果 葡属刚果
Now there was actually a third Congo – PortugueseCongo. Today,
即现在的安哥拉飞地
this is the small exclave of Angola,
是块与大陆分离的领土
which is separated from the mainland.
在第二次世界大战结束和联合国创立之后
After WWII and the creation of the United Nations,
此时欧洲列强
was when the European powers began
开始在非洲去殖民化
the process of decolonisation of Africa.
当这两个国家在1960年获得独立时
The name confusion was even greater
名字就更加令人分不清了
when both countries gained their independence in 1960,
当时两个国家都自称 刚果共和国
when both countries named themselves the “Republicof the Congo”. Again,
称呼加上首都以避免混淆
the capital city was
当时是刚果—利奥波德维尔 及 刚果—布拉柴维尔
used to avoid ambiguity, although at the time it was Congo-Leopoldville and Congo-Brazzaville.
1964年 刚果—利奥波德维尔 把名字改变成今天我们所知道的
In 1964 however, Congo-Leopoldville changedits name to what we know it as today: the
刚果民主共和国
Democratic Republic of the Congo.
两年后 这个国家的首都城市
Two yearsafter that and the country’s capital city
也变成了今天我们所熟知的金沙萨
was changed to what it is today as well: Kinshasa.
当时政府很想
The government at the time really wanted to
让国家名字远离那段殖民历史
distance themselves from their colonial past.
在独立后第一个五年
For the first five years of independence,
国家处于骚乱之中
the country was in turmoil, in what today
即现在常说的刚果危机
is often referred to as the Congo Crisis,
第一个民主选举总理
after the first democratically elected Prime Minister,
帕特里斯·卢蒙巴被逮捕和暗杀后
Patrice Lumumba, was arrested andlater assassinated.
蒙博托·塞塞·塞科掌权
Power was seized by Mobutu
他依靠
Sese Seko, who had significant backing
美国和比利时的强力支持
from the United States and Belgium, establishing
建立了军事独裁
a military dictatorship,
在1971年他改国名为扎伊尔共和国
and in 1971 changed the country’s name to Republic of Zaire.
两个刚果都卷入冷战
Both Congos became involved in the Cold War,
但却站在了冲突的对立面
but found themselves on opposite sides of the conflict.
刚果共和国和前苏联关系密切
The Republic of the Congo had very close ties
在1969年恩古瓦比发动政变
with the Soviet Union, and became a one-party,
篡夺控制权后
communist state in 1969 after a coup by Marien Ngouabi,
成为一党共产主义国家
who assumed control and established
即刚果人民共和国
the People’s Republic of the Congo,
刚果的工人党当政
with the Congolese Workers’Party as the government.
扎伊尔共和国 和 刚果人民共和国
Both the Republic of Zaire and the People’s Republic
都在19世纪90年代终结
of the Congo came to an end in the 1990’s.
由于普遍地区不稳定 扎伊尔政府下台
Zaire collapsed due to instability in the general region,
主要因为
primarily caused by
卢旺达种族屠杀 此起彼伏的暴动
the Rwandan Genocide and the violence that spilled over as well
难民四散离家
as the refugees who fled
但随着第一次刚果战争开始
the country, becoming the Democratic Republic of the Congo again
蒙博托被驱逐
in 1997, with the ousting
刚果民主共和国于1997年重新建立
the Mobutu, who fled the country as the First Congo War began.
并于1992年确立多党选举
The People’s Republic of the Congo established multi-party elections in 1992,
随着共产主义的没落 前苏联的解体
with the fall of communism and the dissolution of the Soviet Union,
这两个国家把
changing their name and flag to what
名字和国旗改成现在这样
they are today.
这就是关于两个刚果的内容
So that’s how we ended up with two Congos,
两个欧洲殖民地都以刚果河命名
two European colonies that were both named
刚果河又以刚果的非洲王国命名
after the Congo River, which was named after the African Kingdom of Congo.
这不是两个国家拥有相似名字的唯一例子
Now this isn’t the only example of countries having very similar names.
在非洲
Sticking with Africa
几内亚 几内亚—比绍 赤道几内亚
and we have: Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, and EquatorialGuinea.
几乎是同样的情况
And it’s pretty much the same situation.
它们之前都是殖民地
All were former colonies:
分别是 法属几内亚 葡萄牙属几内亚 西班牙几内亚
French Guinea, Portuguese Guinea, and Spanish Guinea, respectively,
都以被称为“几内亚”的西非地区命名
all named after the general Western region of Africa known as Guinea.
当然 在东南亚也有巴布亚新几内亚
And of course, there’s also Papua New Guineain south-east Asia.
这个岛被命名为新几内亚
The island was named New
因为探险者认为
Guinea as the explorers thought the
当地人长得很像 非洲几内亚人
locals resembled the people of the African region
并且 这座岛在当地的一个名字
of Guinea, and one of the local names
巴布亚岛 所以就被称为巴布亚新几内亚
for the island was Papua, hence Papua New Guinea.
新几内亚本不会和完全不沾边的圭亚那混淆
Now Guinea should not be confused with the completely unrelated Guyana.
但我们在南美洲发现了与之相似的命名情况
Where yet again we find a somewhat similar naming situation in South America.
这个地区有五个欧洲殖民地
There were five European
分别是 西属圭亚那
colonies in the region known as Guyana: Spanish,
英属圭亚那 荷属圭亚那 法属圭亚那 葡属圭亚那
British, Dutch, French, and Portuguese Guyana.
分别成为了委内瑞拉 独立的圭亚那国家
These became… part of Venezuela, the independent country of Guyana,
苏里南
the country of Suriname,
海外法属圭亚那 以及巴西的一部分
the overseas department French Guiana, andpart of Brazil.
还有其他例子 比如 尼日尔和尼日利亚
There are other examples of this such as Niger and Nigeria,
都是以尼日尔河命名的
both named after the Niger River…
有些听起来很像的国家完全巧合
and some countries that sound alike that are completely coincidental,
例如 奥地利和澳大利亚
for example Austria and Australia.
虽然很有趣
Although interestingly enough,
这两个国家都以指南针的一个方向命名
both countries were name after points on a
但却是不同语言中的不同方向
compass… but different points and in differentlanguages.
奥地利源于德语 意为西
Austria comes from the German for West,
而澳大利亚源于拉丁语 意为南
while Australia comes from the Latinfor South.
说个一个相关话题
Now on a somewhat related topic,
你可能已经意识到
something you might have noticed about a few of the
视频中我提到的一些非洲国家
African nations that I’ve mentioned
刚果共和国 圭亚那
in this video… the Republic of the Congo, Guinea,
圭亚那—比绍 它们的国旗上都有相同的颜色
and Guinea-Bissau… is that they all havethe same colours on their flag: green, yellow,
绿色 黄色 和 红色
and red.
这些颜色本来是被埃塞俄比亚使用的
The colours were originally used by Ethiopia,
而埃塞俄比亚一直未被欧洲殖民
a country which managed remain outside Europe
因此
colonial rule. Because of this,
20世纪中期
many newly independent African nations chose to use these
很多新独立的非洲国
colours as a symbol of their freedom
选择这些颜色作为他们独立
from European rule once they gained their independence
重获自由的象征
in the mid 20th century.
十多个非洲国家都使用了这些颜色
More than a dozencountries in Africa share this colour scheme,
成为泛非洲文化
which has become a symbol for Pan-Africanism,
以及非洲血统统一的象征
the unity of those of African descent.
两个刚果 三个圭亚那
The two Congos, and indeed the three Guineas,
都拥有
all got their names and international borders
被欧洲殖民时期的国名和国界
from the European colonisation of Africa,
那时欧洲帝国列强为了经济掠夺
a time when the imperial European powers took
几乎控制了整个非洲大陆
control of almost the entire continent, primarilyfor economic gain.
非洲殖民化
The colonisation of Africa
这就是我近期视频的主题
is topic that I plan on doing a video about in the near future,
希望大家订阅频道 不要错过更新
so hopefully you’re subscribed and don’t miss that when it comes out.
现在我想感谢大家
But for now I just want to say thanks
观看短于平时的本期视频
for watching this slightly shorter than normal video,
下次再见
and I’ll see you next time.

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译制信息
视频概述

两个刚果名字类似的历史原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

kili

审核员

审核员ZY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yA4uvWhvmHw

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