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为什么会有各种各样的苹果 – 译学馆
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为什么会有各种各样的苹果

Why are there so many types of apples? - Theresa Doud

你有没有步入一家杂货铺
Have you ever walked into a grocery store
疑惑这么多种苹果是怎么来的
and wondered where all those variety of apples came from?
你可能会发现SnapDragon
You might find SnapDragon,
Pixie Crunch
Pixie Crunch,
Cosmic Crisp
Cosmic Crisp,
Jazz
Jazz,
或Ambrosia
or Ambrosia
还有我们熟悉的和Red Delicious和Granny Smith
next to the more familiar Red Delicious and Granny Smith.
这些光鲜的名字
These delightfully descriptive names
只是7500种苹果中的一小部分
belong to just a handful of the over 7,500 apple varieties in the world.
这么多种类很大程度上是由于人们对于孕育新水果所做出的努力
This huge diversity exists largely because of humanity’s efforts to bear new fruit.
水果培育是一种方法
Fruit breeding is a way to fulfill the expectations of farmers and consumers
满足农民和消费者对苹果品质追求的方法
who seek specific qualities in an apple.
一方面 果农们希望它们能够抗病 好储存
On the one hand, farmers may want them to be disease-resistant and to store well.
另一方面 消费者被食物的外观 口味和新奇的东西所影响
On the other, consumers are swayed by appearance, taste, and novelty.
所以 培育员必须考虑所有的需求
So, breeders have to consider everything
从如何让苹果在特定气候下生长良好
from how well apples grow in certain climates
到它们的颜色 口味 大小
to their color, taste, and size.
所以有时候找到完全拟合意味着培养新品种
And sometimes finding the perfect fit means breeding something new.
为了创造出想要的苹果
To create apples with desirable characteristics,
培育员首先要找到带有这些特质的母本
breeders first need to find parent apples that carry those characteristics.
一旦选中母本
Once the parents have been selected,
他们必须等到树在春天开花
they have to wait until the trees bloom in the spring.
培育员从父本的花上取下花粉
The breeder takes the pollen from one bloom, called the father,
然后手工将其转移到另一株母本的花上
and transfers it by hand to the other parent bloom, called the mother,
这种方法叫异花传粉
through a process called cross-pollination.
母本一旦开花结果
Once the mother bloom turns into an apple,
立即收集种植 然后种植
the seeds are collected and then planted.
从种子长成树并结出苹果大概要五年时间
It takes about five years for these seeds to grow into trees that produce apples,
但是这种方法的苹果 可能遗传不同的品质
but because of the way traits are inherited,
所有的种苗都会带有不同的基因
all of the seedlings produced will have different sets of genes
和特性
and characteristics.
这意味着 想要达到预期品质
This means that to achieve a desired quality,
要有很多很多代
it takes a lot of offspring,
培育员要有足够的耐心
not to mention patience on the breeder’s part.
当种苗真的结出了预期质量的果子时
When a seedling does bear fruit with the desired qualities,
它就会被挑出来用以更进一步的评估
it’s selected for further evaluation.
所有初代的交叉种苗
Of the original crossed seedlings,
只有大约1/5000到这个阶段
about one in every 5,000 makes it to this prestigious stage.
然后它们被送到新农场
They’re then sent to new farms
在这里 培育员可以评估不同的气温
where breeders can assess how various climates and soil types
土质对植物生长的影响
affect the plant’s growth.
然后 必须收集水果种苗及子株
The fruit of the seedling and its many clones
并取样研究来保证遗传稳定性
must then be collected and sampled to ensure consistency.
培育员研究大约45种苹果品质
Breeders study about 45 traits in an apple,
像苹果的质地 果肉的紧实性
like the texture and firmness of the flesh,
成熟时
when it ripens,
果汁的糖分
how sugary its juice is,
保鲜时间
and how long it stays fresh.
通过几年时间 他们淘汰所有的坏苹果
Over several years, they weed out all the bad apples,
只选择最好的水果
selecting only those whose fruits are the best.
这些独有的植物正式成为品种
These exclusive plants officially form the cultivar,
或者苹果新品种
or new apple variety.
为确保品质的精确遗传
To ensure an exact copy of this cultivar,
所以的苹果树必须是初代树苗嫁接传代的
all apple trees must be grafted from the original seedling.
嫁接的树枝叫做接穗
Branches, called scion wood,
是从初代树上看砍下来的 然后长成用以传代更多接穗
are cut from the original tree and grown to generate more scion wood.
这些树段然后被嫁接到根茎上
Segments of these trees are then grafted onto root stalk –
根茎是另一颗棵树的下面部分
that’s the lower section of another tree
根茎是从有优良的根和发育能力
that’s been chosen from a different cultivar
的品种中选来的
for its superior roots and growing ability.
最后,这种融合产生了一棵
Finally, this fusion creates a new apple tree
拥有了期待品质的全新的苹果树
with the desired qualities.
每棵新植物开始结水果
Each new plant takes up to four years
要花4年时间
before it starts producing the fruit we eat.
苹果培育也许是一个困难的艺术但是许多都能达成
Apple breeding may be a difficult art, but it’s accessible to all:
比如大学呀
universities,
或者公司啊
companies,
甚至每个人都能培育新品种
and even individuals can create new cultivars.
但是要完全拥有苹果品种 培育员面临最后一个挑战
But to fully own an apple, the breeder faces a final challenge –
给水果命名
naming the fruit.
一个品种申请专利后
After a cultivar is patented,
培育员选择一个名字作为商标
a breeder chooses a name for its trademark.
最后一步赋予了他们在苹果极其子代上长久的权力
That final step grants them long-lasting rights over the apple and its clones.
这个名字必须是完全原创的
That name must be completely original,
当然要引人注目 更好
and the catchier, the better, of course.
有超过7500种和计数
With over 7,500 varieties and counting,
那就是为什么有苹果教Pink Lady
that’s why we have apples called Pink Lady,
Sweet Tango
Sweet Tango,
Kiku
Kiku,
和EverCrisp
and EverCrisp.
我们越多的利用自然的恩赐培育新品种
The more we work with nature’s bounty to breed new cultivars,
这些名字就越有创意 越美味
the more creative and delectable these names will become.

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