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这是云吗 – 译学馆
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这是云吗

Why Are There Clouds?

如果我们想从头造一朵云彩
If we wanted to make a cloud entirely from scratch
首先 我们需要一整个舰队那么多的大型喷气式客机或数百个热气球
we’d first need a fleet of jumbo jets or several hundred hot-air balloons
将数百吨的水托运到天空
to haul hundreds of tons of water up to the sky.
然后 我们需要把这些液体
And then, somehow, we’d need to disperse all that liquid
分散成能够漂浮的足够小的雾状水滴
into a mist of droplets small enough to float.
总之 这不容易
In short, it wouldn’t be easy.
然而 我们的大气却能在地球上将云彩一朵接一朵地
And yet, our atmosphere manages to pump out one cloud after another all over the world
送到海拔20公里的高空
at altitudes of up to 20 kilometers above sea level
在全世界造出一个又一个云彩
using water and fuel carried all the way from Earth’s surface.
比如积云 通过太阳能破坏使水分子聚集的键
Cumulus clouds, for example get their start when solar energy evaporates water from oceans,
来蒸发海洋 植物和土壤中的水 并以此为起点
plants, and soil by breaking the bonds that hold water molecules together.
由于上面的空气携带有热量和水分 较冷较重的空气
As the patch of air above collects moisture and heat,cooler,heavier air sinks around it
在它附近下沉成尖形 像一个无形的热气球一样推向高空
pinching it off and pushing it aloft like an invisible hot-air balloon.
奇怪的是 这个气球的重量并没有使它下沉
Surprisingly, this balloon’s cargo doesn’t weigh it down
——实际上 在蒸发之前收集的水蒸气越多 它就越轻
– in fact, the more water vapor it collects before lift-off, the lighter it gets.
听起来很奇怪 这是因为水蒸气是气体
As weird as that sounds, it’s because water vapor is a gas
就像构成大气主要成分的氮气和氧气
just like the nitrogen and oxygen that make up most of the atmosphere.
基础物理学规定 给定体积的气体具有相同的分子数
Basic physics dictates that a given volume of gas has the same number of molecules
与分子的种类无关
regardless of what those molecules are.
水是由H H和O组成的
And water is made of H plus H plus O,
比两个N和O的氮气氧气都轻
which is lighter than both two Ns and two Os.
因此 温暖潮湿的空气比温暖干燥的空气浮力更大
So warm, humid air is even more buoyant than warm, dry air.
随着无形的热气球上升
As the invisible balloon goes up,
外界下降的压力允许它保持膨胀
the falling pressure outside allows it to keep ballooning,
并释放自身内在的热量降低自身的温度
which spreads out its internal heat and lowers its temperature.
最终 上部的冷空气足以使蒸汽冷凝为液滴
Eventually, the air at the top cools enough for the water vapor there to condense into droplets
从远处看起来像一片薄云
which look from afar like a thin wisp of cloud.
随着气球的其他部分上升
And as the rest of the balloon rises
水蒸气同时在同一高度继续变凉冷却
water vapor continues to cool and condense,at the same altitude,
产生平底云 像是无中生有一样
creating a flat-bottomed cloud that appears to grow upward out of nothing.
更重要的是 当冷凝的水蒸汽分子聚集成为液滴时
What’s more, as the condensing water vapor molecules bond together into liquid droplets,
它们会释放出它们蒸发时从地球表面吸收的能量
they release the energy they absorbed from Earth’s surface when they evaporated.
它加热了周围的空气 使其上升 并吸收其后更多的潮湿空气
This heats the surrounding pocket of air, giving it lift and sucking more moist air up behind it
[上升气流] 令其降温冷却 并释放热量
[updraft], which cools and condenses and releases heat
给上升提供动力 增强上升气流
which fuels lift and strengthens the updraft.
即使在一个小积云中 冷凝所释放的总的能量
Even in a small cumulus cloud , the total energy released from condensation is huge
是很大的——相当于约270吨的TNT炸药
– equivalent to about 270 tons of TNT.
如果补给的水蒸气很大
And if the supply of water vapor is much larger,
释放的能量可以产生平流层柱状云层
the energy released can produce stratosphere-high pillars of cloud
伴随剧烈的上升气流 猛烈的雷暴
with violent updrafts, fierce electrical storms,
和葡萄柚大小的冰雹
and grapefruit-sized hailstones.
这可不是乘热气球的好天气
Not good weather for hot air ballooning.
嗨 我是来自MinEarth的艾米莉
本集给您带来的部分内容来源于网络和油管的“动物逻辑”频道
每周 “动物逻辑”主持人丹尼尔 对动物王国的一个成员进行了为期一周的“不眨眼”的细致观察
我的意思是 真的眼都没眨
我一直在看这个节目 了解了会爆炸的鸽子 开瓶器形状的阴茎 粪便喷头
和其他我甚至不确定我想知道的东西
我想说的是 真的值了
在youtube.com/animalogic上看“动物逻辑”吧
或点击此处或下面的描述
感谢“动物逻辑”对“分钟地球”的支持 继续从事伟大的事业吧

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视频概述

云朵的形成理论和形成过程,以直白的语言解释复杂的科学术语

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

李门牙😄

审核员

审核团H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC2x_RRnk8E

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