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为什么星星是星形

Why are Stars Star-Shaped?

当你让别人画星星时 他们通常会画成这样
When you ask someone to draw a star, they’ll probably draw something like this
或这样 或这样
or this or this
即便忽略五彩缤纷的色彩 这看起来也不十分科学
Even ignoring the rainbows, this doesn’t seem very scientific
因为我们知道 星星实际上是巨大 火热的等离子“圆球”
since we know stars are actually big hot ROUND balls of plasma
而且足够遥远 以至于它们基本上只是一些点
and far enough away that they’re basically just dots.
所以为什么我们画带有角的星星呢?
So why do we draw stars that have points?
答案惊人地简单:我们看到的星星就是有角的
The answer is surprisingly simple: we see stars as pointy
下一次在黑夜里仔细观察一下
Look carefully next time you’re outside on a dark night
或者直接看这个点
or just look at this dot
如果你用全屏观看这个视频 闭上一只眼 放松另一只眼 效果最好
it works best if you make the video fullscreen, close one eye, and relax the other
像看远处的东西那样
as if you’re looking at something far away
你应该会看到一个有尖角的 星星般的图形
You should see a pointy, star-like shape!
事实上 不只人类会看到有尖角的星星
In fact, it’s not just humans that see pointy stars.
一些望远镜看星星也是如此
some telescopes see them that way, too!
这都是因为光是一种波
This is all because light is a wave.
来自远处光源的光线通过裂缝或绕过物体时
When light from a distant source passes through an opening or around an object
光波会被轻微弹开或折弯 并彼此干涉
its waves are bounced or bent slightly and interfere with each other
所以经过的光线得到了裂缝或障碍物的印记
so the passing light picks up an imprint of that opening or object
一条直线 无论它是使光线通过的缝隙还是阻挡光线的障碍
A straight line, whether it’s a slit letting light through or a rod blocking the light
都能通过使光线形成垂直方向上的一系列虚线 而留下了自己的印记
leaves its imprint by spreading the light out into a perpendicular series of dashes
就像你眯着眼睛时看到的
like what you see when you squint
十字会形成两组相交的虚线
A cross creates two crossed sets of dashes
圆形会产生同心圆环
circles cause concentric rings
方形会形成一颗四芒星
squares spawn a kind of dashed four-pointed star
六边形会形成六芒星
hexagons dashed six-pointed stars
最著名的双缝实验中出现了一连串“双重虚线”
and the famous double slit experiment gives a series of dashed dashes
不过我最喜欢的衍射图案可能是彭罗斯平铺形状的
My favorite diffraction pattern, though, is probably that of the Penrose tiling
简单而华美 彭罗斯平铺形状的开口并不常见
it’s simply gorgeous… not that you see Penrose-tiling-shaped openings very often.
但是 所有这些印记的要点是
But… the point of all of these imprints is
它们都是点光源穿过特定的开口或经过特定的物体后被分开的结果
that they’re the result of a point of light being spread out when viewed through a particular opening or past a particular object.
例如 哈勃太空望远镜有四个支撑其小型副镜的支架
For example, the Hubble space telescope has four struts that support its small secondary mirror
它们的印记使哈勃照片中出现四芒星
and their imprint causes the 4-pointed stars in hubble photos
我断定你能够猜出拍摄这张照片的镜头上的光圈的形状
And I bet you can guess the shape of the aperture on the lens that took this picture.
同样的 我们眼睛的晶状体有叫做缝合线的细微结构缺陷
Similarly, the lenses of our eyes have subtle structural imperfections called suture lines
缝合线是构成晶状体的纤维相交的地方
where the fibers that make up the lens meet
在光线通过时 这些缺陷留下了非常特定的印记
These imperfections leave a very particular imprint on light as it passes by
正如研究人员用激光照射人眼所证实的那样
as researchers have confirmed by shining lasers in people’s eyes.
所以 尽管恒星本身是小圆点
So, even though stars themselves are just tiny round dots
当光线到达我们的视网膜时 它被“涂抹”成了类似星星的形状
by the time the light reaches our retina, it’s been smeared out into a starlike shape.
地球上的每只眼睛会看到稍微不同的星状“涂片”
Every single eye on earth will see a slightly different starlike smear
这取决于眼镜缝合线的特定形状
depending on the exact nature of its suture lines
你的左右眼也会有所不同
your left and right eyes will differ!
然而奇怪的是 任何“一只”眼睛看所有星星的形状都是相同的
What’s weird, though, is that any particular eye sees the same star shape for every star
所以事实上从科学角度 把星星画成这样是可以接受的
so while it is actually scientifically acceptable to draw stars like this
如果你在一张图中画多个星星 你最好确保它们形状相同
if you draw more than one in a single picture, you better make sure they’re all the same shape!
最重要的是 由于衍射作用对波长较长的红光比蓝光更强
On top of that, since diffraction spreads longer wavelength red light out more than bluer light
这些星形的角事实上是小彩虹 红色在外 蓝色居中
the arms of these star-shapes are actually mini-rainbows with red on the outside and blue in the middle!
再次重申 你可以在哈勃照片 或者更仔细地看一个点光源时看到这一点
which, again, you can see in hubble photographs or if you look even more carefully at a single point of light.
听起来很疯狂 从科学角度说 给星星涂上彩虹色是非常准确的
So as crazy as it sounds, coloring in stars with rainbows is super scientifically accurate
只要颜色的顺序正确
as long as the colors go the right way

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视频概述

为什么星星看起来是星形的?本视频从科学的角度解释了这一现象

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Bù Shí

审核员

LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVAKFJ8VVp4

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