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为什么那么多人对食物过敏? – 译学馆
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为什么那么多人对食物过敏?

Why Are So Many People Allergic To Food?

Thanks to curiosity stream for supporting PBS Digital Studio.
感谢CuriosityStream对PBS数字工作室的支持
One second.
呃……等一下
what do we have here
这些东西是啥?
oh no no those are cashews.
哦!不!不!这些是腰果
So is this like a bowl full of death to you?
所以这个碗对你来说好像充满了死亡气息?
Yes, well, cashews aren’t as strong of reaction for me
算是吧 虽然腰果不会让我产生那么强烈的反应
but I am allergic to tree nuts.
但是我对树坚果过敏
It’s not fun, it’s not fun at all.
别开这种玩笑 一点儿都不好笑
Hey smart people, Joe here.
嗨 聪明人们 我是Joe
I recently invited my friend wheezy waiter
我最近邀请了我的朋友Wheezy Waiter
to come by and talk about food allergies.
来这儿和我谈论关于食物过敏的话题
Just one, they’re not real cashews,
就是这个 它们不是真的腰果
they’re stunt cashews.
而是仿真腰果
Of course you should never trick a friend with the food that they’re allergic to,
当然 你不应该用过敏食物 开你朋友的玩笑
but it’s okay
但是 没关系
wheezy waiter and I are friends,
因为我不仅是Wheezy Waiter的朋友
and I’m a doctor.
还是一名医生
不是那种医生
These days most of us know
现如今 我们大部分人都知道
someone with a food allergy, some food they have to avoid eating,
那些食物过敏的人 不得不避免吃某些食物
or even coming into contact with
甚至连接触都不行
in order to avoid a dangerous reaction or even death.
不然就会引起过敏反应 甚至会导致死亡
why are people allergic to food?
但为什么人们会对食物过敏?
And why are food allergies on the rise?
还有 为什么食物过敏的现象越来越普遍?
It’s nuts.
只是坚果而已
坚果
《聪明刷》
Maybe I’m just getting old
也许只是我变老了
but it’s seems like food allergies are more common than they used to be.
但是 食物过敏的现象似乎比过去更加普遍了
Well we’re not imagining things,
这不是凭空想象
scientific data backs that up.
科学数据可以为此证明
The percentage of children with food allergy
儿童患食物过敏的百分比
has definitely increased in recent years.
在近些年来 确实有所增长
I’m allergic to all tree nuts
我对所有的树坚果过敏
so I’m allergic to walnuts, pine nuts, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts,
所以我对核桃 松子 杏仁 腰果 榛子 夏威夷果
pistachios – here in Texas – pecans everywhere.
德克萨斯的开心果 以及所有的胡桃过敏
-Not pecans no
-不是/pɪˈkæns/ -不
pecans
是/pɪˈkʌns/
I always say pecans, but you’ve taught me it’s pecans.
我一直是说/pɪˈkʌns/ 但是你教过我 该读/pɪˈkæns/
-Yeah I told you the right way -yeah.
-对 我告诉过你正确的读音 -对
That stuff ends up in a lot of different foods,
这份资料的结尾列出了许多不同的食物
so I imagine you have to have accidently encounter these stuff before.
所以 我猜你以前一定不小心吃到过这些食物
I have accidentally encountered almost all those that listed.
列出来的这些的食物 我几乎都不小心吃过
-What happens? -What happens is my mouth swells up,
-发生了什么 -我的嘴肿了
my throat swells up, I get hives,
咽喉肿痛 开始长荨麻疹
I get hives in my lungs, I can’t breathe, horrible stomachache,
肺部发炎 呼吸困难 肚子剧痛
and it lasts for three hours.
这些症状持续了两 三个小时
But I don’t think about reading labels
但我不用去读食品标签
and that’s a whole difference about how we navigate the world as things that
这就是我们看世界的差异
I don’t have to think about and you do.
我不用考虑这些事情 但是你需要
and especially now
尤其是现在
it seems like the nuts are cropping up in everything
似乎所有东西里都含有坚果
like barbecue sauce or cocktails,
比如烧烤酱或者鸡尾酒
like drinks now like to have walnut bitters in them.
还有现在那种含有胡桃苦味剂的饮料中
To make matters even more confusing,
更令人困惑的是
adults can also become allergic to foods that they never had issues with as children.
成年人也可能对他们儿童时期从未过敏的食物产生过敏
我是Emily Graslie
I am the host and creator of the YouTube channel The Brain Scoop and I work for
我是YouTube频道The Brain Scoop的主持人及创始人
the Field Museum as their Chief Curiosity Correspondent.
也是菲尔德博物馆的首席好奇心通讯记者
So I saw on Twitter recently that
最近我在Twitter上了解到
you aren’t getting along with certain kinds of nuts very well anymore.
你不能再吃某些特定种类的坚果
yeah
是啊
I’ve never had problem really with any sort of food.
我之前吃任何食物都没有问题
you know. I but otherwise never have had any sort of allergy whatsoever
我从来没遇到过食物过敏
then a weird thing happened.
然后发生了件奇怪的事
Why don’t we try almond milk for the first time?
我突然觉得 为什么不试一试杏仁牛奶呢?
I had never tried it.
我从来没有试过
The next morning just routine morning
第二天早上跟往常一样
on my way to work I had my bowl of cereal, poured the almond milk on it
在去工作的路上 我吃了一碗加有扁桃仁牛奶的谷物
and I got to work
然后开始工作
I notice that my nose was just dripping like a faucet,
但我发觉我的鼻子像水龙头在滴水一样
and I realized I was hot and itchy,
我感到又热又痒
and I noticed that I was just absolutely covered in full-body hives.
并且注意到我全身长满了荨麻疹
I just was like this is really weird.
我当时只是觉得这很奇怪
Now a true food allergy is different from a food intolerance.
食物过敏和对食物的不耐受是两种不同的概念
This is really important
这是非常重要的
like if you’re lactose intolerant
比如你有乳糖不耐症
and you can’t digest cow’s milk.
那你无法消化牛奶
It can make you feel really sick Aches, pains and digestive troubles, that kind of stuff.
它会使你感觉到疼痛 痛苦 产生消化问题等等
But if you’re allergic to milk,
但如果你是对牛奶过敏
it could kill you.
喝牛奶可能会让你丧命
A true allergy is when your body’s immune system
真正的过敏是你身体的免疫系统
has a reaction to the food on a molecular level.
在分子水平上对某些食物产生的反应
It’s your body treating food as a germ or an invader,
是你的身体把这些食物当成细菌或入侵者
which actually doesn’t make sense.
但这样就说不通了
Let’s look at how this works.
让我们看看它们的工作原理
Food is made up of lots of different molecular bits
食物由许多不同分子组成
like the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
比如脂肪 糖类 和蛋白质
We’re gonna focus in on the proteins
让我们重点关注蛋白质
everything we eat has proteins and they come in a variety of shapes.
我们吃的任何东西都含有蛋白质并且它们有多种结构
Our bodies usually digest food proteins down to their most basic units,
通常身体会将食物蛋白质消化为其最基本的单位
but some food proteins don’t get completely broken down
但是一些食物中的蛋白质不能被完全分解
and they escape into the body where they meet immune system
它们会进入人体 与免疫系统相遇
immune system’s job to recognize protein shapes that
免疫系统的工作就是识别危险的入侵者
come from dangerous invaders – viruses,bacteria, things like that sneaking around your body.
像病毒 细菌等潜伏在你身体周围的东西
But peanut butter should not cause this reaction.this make no sense.
但是花生酱不应该引起这种反应 这说不通
cobras jellyfish really big wasps maybe
有可能是眼镜蛇 水母和大黄蜂
but not deliciously roasted legumes.
但肯定不是美味的烤豆
molecules called antibodies stick to the foreign food molecule
在抗体分子粘附在外来食物分子上后
leading to the release of a chemical called histamine.
将导致一种叫做组胺的化学物质的释放
which make you really itchy
它会使你奇痒无比
or reaction is bad enough it can cause anaphylaxis –
最糟糕时会引发过敏反应
where the entire body just goes haywire.
你的整个身体会不受控制
from dizziness to swelling to your ability to breathe.
先是头昏脑胀 然后呼吸困难
So I started looking up like
所以我开始寻找原因
you know can you just develop an almond allergy or a tree nut allergy as an adult –
作为一个成年人 你会忽然对杏仁或树坚果过敏吗?
you can
答案是肯定的
and I said well what could cause it.
所以我就想到底是什么导致的
The only unusual thing was this almond milk,
与平时不同的就是 我那天喝了杏仁牛奶
so I immediately made an appointment with an allergist.
所以我立刻去看了我的过敏科医生
We needed to determine if almonds had specifically caused this allergic reaction.
我们需要确定过敏到底是不是杏仁导致的
So honestly we did this food challenge
说实话 我们完成了这次的食物挑战
and nothing happened.
可什么都没发生
Nothing happened so you’re sitting there now
-什么事都没有发生 -所以你现在坐在这里
and you still have no idea what triggered this,
却仍然不知道是什么引起了过敏
what it really was,
它究竟是什么
or what you might meet again that could
或者什么时候你又会碰到
give you a problem.
这种带给你困扰的食物
And it could be nothing,
对 可能什么都不是
it could be something else that
也可能是我吃过的其他什么东西
I ate. Emily had an allergic reaction to something.
Emily对一些东西过敏
In cases like these even
她的这种状况
doctors can be stumped.
甚至把医生也难住了
In the meantime he told me
与此同时 他还告诉我
when I left the office that
在我离开办公室的那天
day that I needed to operate
就需要去动手术
as though I had a life-threatening tree nut allergy.
就好像树坚果过敏会威胁到我的生命
So he prescribed me epinephrine and
所以他规定我要补充肾上腺素
I have an epinephrine injector that
所以我有一个肾上腺素注射器
I have to carry with me everywhere.
我必须带着它去任何地方
I have to spend the next year carrying this around with me,
我明年一年都不得不带着这个东西
and maybe have to use it on some mystery food
也许在吃过一些神秘食物之后 会用到它
that we don’t know.
我们不知道会是什么
I keep coming back to one basic question,
我一直在回想一个基本问题
why would our bodies bother to have such extreme reactions?
为什么我们的身体会产生如此极端的反应?
Reactions that could kill us after a handful of trail mix, or a glass of milk.
只是吃了一把混合谷物或是喝了一杯牛奶 就可能引发致命的反应
The truth is we don’t know why food allergies exist –
事实是 我们不知道为什么食物过敏会存在
there is a leading theory
这里有一个主流的理论
and I should stress this is just a theory,
我强调一下 这只是一个理论
that allergies might exist thanks to parasites.
那就是 过敏可能是寄生虫引起的
The part of our immune system that recognizes allergy causing food
一部分免疫系统可以识别 导致过敏的食物
also reacts to certain wormy, buggy infections.
也能对特定的虫害感染起反应
Humans are a lot cleaner than we used to be,
人们现在所处的环境比以前干净得多
back before hand sanitizer and indoor plumbing,
以前没有洗手液和室内水管
and you know, science.
还有 你知道的 也没科学
Today we don’t have as many parasites entering our bodies,
今天 我们没有那么多的寄生虫进入我们的身体
so maybe that bit of our immune system is just bored –
所以 可能我们的免疫系统只是有些无聊
so it’s overreacting
所以它反应过度了
and attacking foreign-looking proteins in our food instead.
就开始攻击外来食物中的蛋白质
Our clean, sterile, no dirt eating lifestyles
我们干净无菌 没有灰尘的饮食习惯
could be behind the rise in allergies of all kinds.
可能还是输给了过敏种类的增多
But that’s just a theory,
但是 这仅仅只是一种理论
a parasite…
一条寄生虫……
wait that’s not my catchphrase What am I doing?
等等 这不是我的标题 我在做什么?
Peanut allergies are the most common food allergy,
花生过敏是最常见的食物过敏
affecting nearly 1 in 40 kids in the US.
在美国 每四十个儿童中就会有一个对花生过敏
In all, we know of at least 400 proteins for more
我们已知的400多种蛋白质中
than a hundred and seventy foods that cause allergic reactions
有一百七十多种可能引发过敏反应的食物
with eight foods accounting for 90% of those.
其中90%的食物都包含在以下八种食物中
Now a lot of people are allergic to shrimp and other shellfish,
现在 许多人对虾以及其他甲壳类过敏
and a lot of those people are also allergic to little bugs called dust mites.
也有许多人会对尘螨产生过敏反应
Now shrimp shellfish and dust mites are all invertebrates
虾等甲壳类动物和尘螨都是无脊椎动物
and all of them trigger allergies
他们之所以会触发过敏反应
thanks to a protein called tropomyosin.
是因为一种叫做原肌球蛋白的物质
Well they share that protein
它们都含有这种蛋白质
and it’s very different from anything our bodies make.
但与我们人体制造出来的原肌球蛋白不同
This is an example of cross reactivity,
这是一个交叉反应的例子
like if you’re allergic to cashews
就像 如果你对腰果过敏
you might also be allergic to pistachios or
你可能也对开心果或者芒果过敏
mangos since they’re all in the same plant family.
因为它们属于同一个植物系
I’m telling you evolution explains everything.
我来告诉你 进化论可以解释这一切
So how can you
所以 要怎样做才可以
avoid food allergies for you or your kids?
让你或你的孩子远离食物过敏呢?
just a decade or two ago
就在一二十年前
doctors recommended not giving young kids foods that commonly trigger allergies
医生会建议小孩子长到一定年龄之前
for at least the first few years of their life.
都不要给他们吃通常会引起过敏的食物
But that was actually the exact wrong advice.
但那其实是一个完全错误的建议
Food allergy rates continued to rise,
随着食物过敏率逐年增加
so doctors changed their recommendations.
专家改变了他们的建议
Today’s advice suggests parents should
如今 他们会建议父母应该
slowly introduce common allergic foods early, and in small amounts
趁早让孩子逐渐 少量地接触容易引发过敏的食物
– and it seems like it’s working.
这种方法很有效果
Food allergy rates have stopped rising at least.
至少食物过敏率已经停止上升了
I mean we’re parents now
现在我们为人父母
mm-hmm
嗯哼
How does your having an allergy affect
你食物过敏这件事会不会影响
what you’re introducing your child to –
你让你的孩子尝试这些食物
if it were up to me
我……如果这事儿让我来
I probably would be incredibly more wimpy about it,
我可能会……很懦弱
but my wife my wife is introducing all these things.
但是我的妻子……我的妻子正在让孩子尝试这些食物
She introduced all the all the nuts to her so far
到目前为止她给我们的女儿尝试了所有的坚果
and she’s not allergic.
她都不过敏
So yeah, and I got nervous every time. Which is fine.
-所以…… -我每次都非常担心 但她没什么事儿
If you already have a food allergy,
如果你已经确定对食物过敏
unfortunately there’s no cure.
很不幸 没有治愈的方法
We’re developing treatments
我们正在研究一些疗法
like getting the immune system accustomed to allergy causing foods in small doses, there’s
比如让免疫系统适应少量的过敏食物
even a sticker that acts almost like a nicotine patch for peanut allergy.
但仍然存在像花生过敏这种 尼古丁贴片一样的难题
please remember always talk to a doctor before you attempt any treatment.
但务必记住 尝试治疗之前 先咨询你的医生
*但Joe可不是那种所谓的医生
你给我滚开!
Sadly with food allergies
可悲的是 在食物过敏问题上
there’s still more questions than there are answers.
存在的问题比答案更多
We know what’s causing them,
我们知道导致过敏的原因
we know a little bit about how to prevent them,
我们大概了解要怎样预防过敏
but we don’t know why they exist
但我们不知道为什么会存在食物过敏问题
or how to cure them.
还有如何治愈它们
It’s really stressful to not know what caused
不知道过敏源真的让人倍感压力
it and to not have any reliable way of testing what caused it.
况且还没有可靠的 检测过敏源的方法
You take for granted
你觉得理所当然……呃……
when you don’t have a food allergy – you can go wherever you want
当你不会食物过敏 你可以去任何想去的地方
ready to eat anything and so you’re
毫无顾忌地吃东西
automatically your world like shrinks quite a bit.
我们的世界却在不知不觉间缩小了
Every restaurant you go to,
你去的每个餐厅
every lunch that you eat,
吃的每顿饭
if you didn’t prepare it yourself
如果不是你自己准备的
I’m wondering like is this gonna have something in it that could kill me?
就会想 里面有没有什么东西会置我于死地?
And am I allergic to almonds?
我对杏仁过敏吗?
And if it’s not almonds then what is it?
如果不是杏仁 那什么可能让我过敏?
Are people taking me seriously.
人们有认真对待我吗?
That’s a big concern that people who have food allergies.
这是食物过敏的人非常关心的问题
But, it can be life-threatening.
因为 这可能对我的性命构成威胁
Is it frustrating that people can’t give you an answer about why this happened.
没人知道为何过敏会发生 这是不是很令人沮丧
Yes, I would love a cure that would be great.
是的 我很想要治疗方法 有就太好了
Do you’ve a cure are you gonna introduce a cure?
你有啥治愈方法吗 ?介绍一个?
Well it’s called exposure therapy.
好吧 这种方法我把它称做暴露疗法
你是不是逼Joseph这么问你的
But every scientific question that we know the answer to today was
但如今我们知道答案的这些科学问题
once a mystery just like this
曾经和食物过敏问题一样
an answer barely out of reach, in the fog of not knowing yet.
答案遥不可及 隐藏在未知的迷雾中
Someday we’ll figure it out.
但总有一天 我们会搞清楚
Some nuts are just tougher to crack than others.
有些坚果只是比其他坚果难掰开而已
Stay curious.
保持好奇心

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视频概述

本视频介绍了食物过敏对人们的影响。讨论了引起食物过敏的原因以及如何应对食物过敏。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kLC0cX3rAX0

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