未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么美国监狱有这么多人?

Why Are So Many Americans in Prison?

Our prisons are crowded with people who shouldn’t be there,
我们的监狱里挤满了不该在那里的
THE VICTIMS OF A RACIST JUSTICE SYSTEM
种族主义司法系统的受害者
This is the popular progressive narrative.
这是个常见的激进派说法
But it’s wrong in every respect—dangerously wrong.
但这一说法无论从哪方面来讲 都存在严重的错误
The U.S. does have a very large prison population—
美国确实有大量囚犯
not because too many innocent people are incarcerated,
但不是因为监禁了很多无辜的人
but because too many people commit serious—
而是很多人犯了严重错误
usually violent—crimes.
通常是——暴力犯罪
With rare exceptions,
除了极少数例外
that’s why most people are imprisoned in America.
这是多数人在美国被囚禁的原因
Period. Full stop.
就是这样
Before presenting the facts,
在陈述事实之前
let me add these caveats:
我补充一些注意事项:
It’s unacceptable that any innocent person is behind bars.
不能接受任何无辜的人被关进监狱
Punishment must always fit, not exceed, the crime.
刑罚必须适当 不超过罪行
We should do everything we can to reduce the rates of recidivism—
我们应该尽力降低再犯率——
committing more crime after release.
刑满释放后再犯罪
And finally, everyone in prison should be treated humanely.
最后 监狱里的每个人都应得到人道对待
But let’s not fool ourselves that our prisons are
但我们不要自欺欺人地认为
full of people who shouldn’t be there.
我们的监狱里关满了本不该关在那里的人
That’s simply not the case.
事实并非如此
Let’s start with those convicted of drug offenses,
我们从那些毒品犯说起
the source of so much of the “mass incarceration” myth.
他们是“大规模监禁”神话的来源
While it’s true that about half of federal prisoners
大约一半的联邦囚犯
are incarcerated on drug charges,
是因毒品指控而被监禁
federal inmates constitute only about
但联邦囚犯只占
12% of the American prison population.
美国监狱人数的12%
Almost nine of every ten prison inmates are in state facilities.
差不多10个囚犯有9个在州立监狱
very few of them less than 15% are there for drug-related offenses
而其中只有不到15%的人因毒品相关的犯罪而入狱
Four times that number are behind bars for one of the following serious crimes:
四倍于这个数字的是严重犯罪:
Murder—14%
谋杀犯——14%
Rape or sexual assault—13%
强奸 性侵犯——13%
Robbery—13%
抢劫犯——13%
Aggravated or simple assault—11%
严重或轻微攻击行为——11%
And burglary—9%
盗窃——9%
In short, violent criminals make up the clear majority of the state prison population.
简言之 暴力罪犯要占州监狱的大头
What’s more, drug offenders who do end up in prison
而那些最终入狱的毒品罪犯
don’t actually serve very much time—
实际上并没有坐很长时间的牢——
almost half are released within a year.
几乎一半的人在一年内被释放
The truth is that most criminals
事实上 大多数罪犯呆在监狱里的时间
probably spend less time in prison than you think—
可能比你想象的要少
even for the most violent crimes
即使是最暴力的犯罪
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics,
根据司法统计局的数据
almost 40% of released state prisoners
州立监狱近40%的囚犯
served less than a year in prison.
服刑不到一年
Even 20% of murderers
甚至有20%的杀人犯
and nearly 60% of those convicted of rape or sexual assault
以及近60%的强奸犯
served less than five years in prison.
在监狱里待了不到五年
What explains the short stays?
怎么解释这些短期监禁?
Answer: plea bargaining.
答案是:辩诉交易
Most prosecutions never go to court.
大多数起诉从未上过法庭
Instead, a deal is made between the defendant’s attorney and the prosecutor
而是被告律师与检察官
to avoid going to trial.
达成了避免审判的协议
These negotiations often involve the offender agreeing
这些谈判通常涉及罪犯同意
to plead guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence,
认罪以换取减刑
or dropping or downgrading the most serious charges.
撤销或降级最严重的指控
As a result, a prisoner’s conviction record often
因此 一个囚犯的定罪记录往往
understates the crime that landed him behind bars in the first place.
低于最初导致他入狱的罪行
For example, an armed burglar who, when arrested,
例如 一个持枪窃贼被逮捕时
was found to be in possession of illegal drugs
被发现非法持有毒品
might go to prison not for his worst crime—
他可能不会因其最严重的罪行——
the armed burglary,
持枪入室行窃而入狱
but for a plea-bargained charge
而因一个辩诉交易的指控
of, say, trespass and drug possession.
因非法入侵和持有毒品入狱
But the media and the activists don’t tell us
但是媒体和活动家们并没有告诉我们
about this rather important detail.
这个非常重要的细节
Instead, all we hear about is the poor fellow who’s
相反 我们听到的只是一个可怜的家伙
serving time “for selling a small amount of cocaine.”
他“因贩卖少量可卡因而入狱”
This assumes, of course, that the convicted criminal does any time at all.
当然 这是假设被定罪的罪犯在任何时候都会这样做
Studies done by the Justice Department show that
司法部的研究表明
only about 40% of felony convictions lead to a prison sentence.
只有大约40% 的重罪判决会导致监禁
yes many are given probation sentenced to home confinement
是的 许多人被判处缓刑或禁足
or given credit for time served in pretrial detention.
或者在审前羁押期间服刑
But most of the time,
但多数情况下
convicted criminals don’t go to prison.
被定罪的罪犯不会进监狱
Do we really want even more criminals out on the street?
我们真的想让更多的罪犯逍遥法外吗?
Activists say yes.
激进分子说“是的”
Scholars at the left-leaning Brennan Center have called for
左倾的布伦南中心的学者们曾呼吁
an immediate 40% reduction in the number of inmates.
立即减少40%的囚犯人数
CNN host Van Jones, founder of the #Cut50 initiative, tops that.
主持人 Van Jones # cut50创始人更甚
he wants a 50% reduction
他要50%的减幅
But if the activists get their way,
但如果激进分子得逞
the costs would be high—
代价将是高昂的
and would likely be paid by the most vulnerable.
而且可能由最脆弱的群体承担
Most crimes are committed by a small fraction of the population
大多数犯罪是由一小部分人犯下的
who primarily victimize their own communities.
他们主要危害所在的社区
Here’s an all-too-common example:
有一个非常常见的例子:
In the spring of 2019,
2019年春天
two men were charged with the murder of a Chicago woman
两名男子被指控谋杀了一名芝加哥妇女
who was shot while holding her baby.
她在抱着孩子的时候中枪了
One of the men charged,
其中一个人被指控
according to the Chicago Tribune, had “nine felony convictions,
根据《芝加哥论坛》记录 他有“9项重罪
including for a 2004 second-degree murder charge.”
包括2004年的二级谋杀指控”
A January 2017 University of Chicago Crime Lab study found that,
2017年1月芝加哥大学犯罪实验室的一项研究发现
on average, someone arrested for a homicide or shooting in that city
在那个城市 有人因为杀人或枪击被捕
had nearly 12 prior arrests.
一般这个人会有近12次前科
Almost 20% had more than 20.
近20% 的人有超过20次前科
If we cut prison rolls by 20, 40 or 50%,
如果我们减少20% 40%或者50%的监禁人数
it won’t be politicians and media celebrities
住在封闭社区的政治家和媒体名人
living in gated communities who will pay the price;
不会为此付出代价;
it will be the law-abiding citizens in underserved neighborhoods
在服务水平低下的社区里挣扎的守法公民
struggling to get ahead who will pay.
却将为此付出代价
When it comes to debates about criminal justice policy,
涉及到刑事司法政策的辩论时
these people—not criminals—should come first.
应首先考虑的是这些人 而不是罪犯
I’m Rafael Mangual,
我是Rafael Mangual
deputy director of legal policy at the Manhattan Institute, for Prager University.
普拉格大学曼哈顿研究所法律政策副主任
Thank you for watching this video.
感谢观看这段视频
To keep Prager you videos free please.
为保证您能免费观看
Please consider making a tax-deductible donation.
您可以考虑作出免税捐款

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

有关美国监狱人数太多的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

珏珲

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DUyUpkQpMEw

相关推荐