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为什么船的水线以下要涂成红色?

Why are ships painted red below the waterline?

Have you noticed how boats both large and small
你是否注意到大大小小的船只
tend to be painted a different color under the water?
水线以下的部分往往会被涂成不同的颜色?
Most often it is red,
而且大部分都是红色
but actually nowadays you can get almost any color you like.
但时至今日 你几乎可以涂成你喜欢的任何颜色
The reason for it goes back to the earliest days of sailing ships.
其原因可以追溯到最早的帆船时代
In those days wooden sailing ships would slowly plot around the world,
那时木制的帆船慢慢地绕着世界航行
a combination of their slow speed and rough hull
缓慢的速度和粗糙的船体
made them an ideal breeding ground for underwater growth.
使它们成为水下生物生长的理想繁殖地
Just take a look under a pier,
只需看看码头下面
you will see the sort of growth these ships used to suffer.
你会看到这些船只曾经遭受的生长侵蚀的痕迹
We’re talking barnacles worms seaweed and things like that.
这里我们所说的是藤壶 蠕虫 海藻之类
So what’s the issue?
那么 会有什么问题呢?
Well, all of these things have negative impacts on ships over time.
随着时间的推移 所有这些都会对船只产生负面影响
You get the obvious of things,
你可以明显看到
like damage to the hull itself, due to worms and the actual growth.
比如 因蠕虫及其实际生长对船只的损害
Then you get issues, like the additional weight that they have to carry around and reduction in maximum speed,
还有其他问题 比如 由于船只额外负重
due to the extra drag.
船身不得不承受额外的重量 降低最大航行速度
Of course on sailing vessels that dragon weight would impact their ability to sail upwind,
当然对帆船来说 龙骨的重量将会影响其逆风行驶的能力
which would yet further reduce their efficiency.
这会进一步降低效率
What you need
你现在所需的就是
is a way to stop marine life from growing on the bottom of the hull.
能阻止船底附着生物生长的方法
And this is where antifouling comes in.
这也是防污漆的价值所在
Antifouling fairly obviously is just a system designed to reduce fouling
很明显 防污漆就是为了
by animal and plant life on the underwater sections of a boat or a ship.
减少附着在船体及其水下部分的动植物产生的污垢而设计的
Early solutions were to place copper sheets on the hulls of ships.
早期的解决办法是用铜板包裹船体
The Cutty Sark is a great example of this.
“卡蒂萨克”号就是一个很好的案例
And I’ll link to the greenwich maritime museum below
如果你想进一步了解
if you want to see more about that.
我会将格林威治海事博物馆的链接放在下面
The primary purpose of the copper sheets was actually to
实际上 铜板的主要用途是为了
stop worms eating their way through old wooden hulls.
阻止蠕虫侵蚀旧的木质船体
A secondary benefit though is that
还有一个作用就是
the copper would reduce the growth of plant life.
铜会降低植物的生长
Of course, as wooden hulls were a place by iron, worm issues did reduce,
当然 随着木质船体被铁质船体所代替 蠕虫问题确实减少了
but they’ve never been eliminated.
但还没完全消失
Just look at the leisure industry today,
看看今天的休闲产业
and you’ll still see plenty of wooden hulls around.
还是能看到许多的木质船体
And of course, regardless of its construction material,
当然 无论用什么样的建筑材料
we still have the same old issue of drag,
这个老问题依然存在
caused by the growth of plant life is probably more important.
特别是由植物生长带来的问题
Now to keep that under control
现在控制住这个问题
what were the cost of fuel and efficiency savings on long passage.
就能在长途航行中节省燃料 增效节约
We still need antifouling to stop a combination of
我们依然需要用防污漆来阻止
worms barnacles and weed from growing on the underside of hulls.
蠕虫 藤壶和杂草在船体下面的生长
But instead of using the old technique of copper sheets,
但现在我们不再沿用旧的铜板技术
we now use a form of paint instead.
而是改用油漆
That antifouling paint works on the same principle
两者工作原理相同
and actually still uses copper as a biocide.
仍然使用铜作为杀菌剂
Though is mostly cuprous oxide,
不过主要是氧化亚铜
now mixed in with the paint rather than copper sheets.
氧化亚铜与油漆混合 而非铜板
It’s the natural red color of those copper oxides
正是氧化亚铜的天然红色
that’s led to the traditional red color of antifouling.
形成了传统的红色防污漆
Modern antifouling systems can be broken down into two broad categories: hard and soft.
现代防污系统可分为两大类:硬涂层防污系统和软涂层防污系统
Soft coatings are designed to wear off over time
软涂层设计成可磨损
continuously exposing fresh biocides as the outer layer of the paint wears off.
随着油漆外层的磨损 不断释放出新的杀菌剂
Hard coatings on the other hand are designed to be a lot more durable,
另一方面 硬涂层设计成更耐用
they’re meant to last a lot longer.
使用寿命也就长的多
As the biocides are released,
随着杀菌剂的释放
the durable layer of paint remains.
油漆的耐用层(硬涂层)依然存在
But of course the biocides contained in the outermost layer do get used up.
当然 最外层所含的杀菌剂总会释放殆尽
Both systems work on the same principle:
两种系统工作原理相同:
they gradually release biocides commonly based on the chemical element copper.
它们逐渐释放以化学元素铜为基础的杀菌剂
The difference is that soft coatings slowly allow the paint to flake off as well,
区别在于 软涂层油漆也会慢慢地剥落
as you can imagine there are environmental considerations to think of.
而且还要考虑环境因素
No matter what way you look at it,
不管你怎么看
antifouling releases via cites and possibly paint into the environment.
防污漆通过引用释放 可能会污染环境
That is one reason a lot of ports don’t allow cleaning of hulls.
这也是许多港口不允许清洗船体的原因之一
They don’t want the extra dose of biocides and paint released by the scrubbing process.
他们不希望洗涤过程中释放出额外剂量的杀菌剂和油漆
So what are your other options?
那还能怎么办呢?
The cleaners one is to simply use
有一个比较环保的方法
normal hardware and paint on the other side of the hull.
就是简单使用常规的硬涂层并在船体的内侧涂漆
But that will result in a lot of aquatic growth.
但这将导致很多水生植物生长
That’s fine on a small boat that
这在小船只上就行得通
you can pull out the water and clean quite often.
可以把船只拖出水面 经常清洗
But is not so great on a container ship running around the world.
但对于世界各地到处跑的集装箱货轮就不太友好
What would happen if for example a container ship
如果一艘集装箱货轮把亚洲的海藻带入波罗的海
picked up some seaweed in Asia and carried it into the Baltic Sea?
会发生什么?
Where it takes hold and overtakes some of the native species.
会造成外来物种的入侵
Similar things have happened and do actually continue to happen.
类似的事情已经发生 且还在继续
Though it’s not so much from hull growth
鉴于防污漆的存在 船只增加问题不大
because of antifouling is more of an issue for a ballast water,
压舱水才是大问题
but that’s a topic for another video.
这是另外一个视频要讲的
So aside from just using no antifouling,
那么除了不使用防污漆
what could you do?
还能做什么?
There is talk of systems that slowly use some sort of jelly from the hull.
有一种说法是 慢慢地使用某种船体胶
The theory is that as the growth attaches to the hull,
原理是 随着船体上生长物的附着
the using jelly seeps off and takes the growth away with it.
胶体渗出并带走生长物
I’ve never seen it in use,
我没有见过实际应用的案例
but if anyone has let me know in the comments below cuz,
但如果你们有人知道的话 可以在评论区告知我
it’d be fascinating to look into.
探讨一下应该会很有趣
Otherwise there are some silicon based paints that make it hard
此外 还有一些硅基涂料能使
for barnacles and things to stick to the hull itself.
藤壶之类的东西很难附着船体
Unfortunately these don’t actually stop the growth,
然而 这并不能完全阻止其生长
but it makes it easier to clean off.
但清理起来会容易些
Send that most ports don’t allow cleaning anyway,
大多数驶出港口并不允许清理
not only because of the historical antifouling issues,
不仅仅是因为历史上的防污问题
but also they don’t want to clean off species
他们也并不想把
that are not native to the harbor itself.
非港口本身的物种清理下来
The last thing they want is to be overcome by
他们不想看到
some sort of invasive weed from the other side of the world.
码头被世界另一端的入侵水草所覆盖
Anyway, hopefully you’ve enjoyed today’s video
不管怎么样 希望你喜欢今天的视频
and have liked learning about the paint on the bottom of the hull.
喜欢本视频关于船底油漆的相关知识
For more content like this every other Friday,
每隔周的周五 想要了解更多这样的内容
be sure to subscribe right here on the channel.
就在此处的频道上订阅吧
Until next time thank you for watching and good bye!
下次见 谢谢观看 拜

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视频概述

简述船水线以下涂成红色的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

长安小盆友

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-AdW030xQB4

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