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宗教信徒为何更加健康幸福 – 译学馆
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宗教信徒为何更加健康幸福

Why Are Religious People Healthier and Happier? | Rabbi Darren Levin

宗教科学的观点十分复杂
Ideas of the science of religion are complicated.
你无法在实验室里研究上帝 也无法量化那些神圣的东西
God is difficult to bring into the laboratory, and it is very hard to quantify the sacred,
但是科学开始探询
but science is beginning to ask questions about
参与宗教生活会带来什么结果或后果
the results or the consequences of participating in religious life.
比如 加入宗教团体
Questions like: does participating in a religious community,
信奉上帝
does having faith in God,
与牧师建立某种关系的过程
does engaging in a process of building a relationship with the divine,
这些是否会对人们的生活产生积极影响
do those questions add positivity to people’s lives?
研究得出了确定的结论 答案是有
And the research is conclusive, and the research shows that yes,
有宗教信仰的人
a person who participates in a faith community,
信奉上帝的人
who has a relationship with God,
寻求自身使命的人
and who is on a quest for purpose,
他们的生活都更好
that their lives are better
在生活安宁度和幸福度的测试中得分更高
and that they do scale higherin the tests of well-being and happiness.
这是不是因为他们不断摸索 寻找自己的信仰
Does that mean it is because as they engage in a process of discovering their faith and
加深与上帝的关系 最后才得到如此丰厚的回报呢
deepening their relationship with the God that it is reciprocated on high?
我不知道 这很难量化
I don’t know; that it is very hard to quantify.
但有一点我们是知道的 那就是在宗教团体中表现活跃的人
But what we do know is thatpeople who participate actively in faith community,
身心更加健康
they have a higher standard of health
那可能是因为 在宗教团体内
and that might bebecause within religious communities,
在最佳情境下
in the best-case scenario,
宗教教义 宗教智慧 以及宗教实践都是围绕着
the teachings and the wisdom and the practices are about things like
家庭 个人责任
family, personal responsibility,
积极地影响世界
making a positive impact in the world,
帮助他人 加深关系
helping others, deepening relationships;
所有这些实践都提升了人的价值
and all of those practices do add a positive value to a person’s life.
所以加入宗教团体
And so the reactions or the consequences for participating in a faith community
确实能给人们的生活带来积极的影响 提升幸福感和满意度
do add positive value and well-beingand life satisfaction to people’s lives.
积极心理学从人的意识出发
Positive psychology got its start from the awareness
其研究领域多集中在人性的弱点
that the field was focused too much on people’s weaknesses
而不是长处上
and not their strengths,
于是马丁.塞利格曼和克里斯.彼得森
and so Martin Seligman and Chris Peterson
致力于转移心理学的研究实践方向
worked to shift the way psychology is practiced,
与其过多地关注人们的问题弱点
rather than think of someone and their problems
不如考虑他们的优点
we think of someone and their strengths,
并试图去提升这些优点
and we try to develop of those strengths,
努力着眼于人们最佳的一面
try to see the best in people.
每个人都有自己独特的优点
Everybody has signature strengths,
我们想关注这些优势 并帮助他们提升这些优势
and we want to focus and help them develop those
在提升过程中
and in developing those
他们的一些弱点也被强化
it helps to shore-up some of their weaknesses.
在公共环境下
In a communal setting,
即扩大群体范围时
expanding on the inventory,
我们想要把同样的个人人格应用于(公共情境)
we try to apply the same characteristics that are articulated for individuals
我们想要把这些在公共环境中付诸实践
but we try to put them into practice in a communal setting.
在宗教团体中 犹太教徒会展现其美好的一面
And in a community setting iswhere Judaism lends itself beautifully
以符合其教义
to applying the inventory of strengths and characteristics.
积极心理学和幸福科学
So the intersection of where positive psychology and the science of happiness
同积极宗教和积极犹太教的交叉
intersect with positive religion and positive Judaism
其实也是PERMA的各种品质的交叉
really live at the intersection of PERMA.
PERMA是个缩略词
PERMA is an acronym,
分别代表积极情绪 投入 关系
which stands for positive emotion, engagement, relationships,
意义 和成就
meaning, and accomplishment.
我们来看看这5个词
So let’s take each of these five domains
在宗教实践下的意思
and see them in the context of religious practice.
我们从P开始 积极情绪
So we’ll start with P, positive emotion.
在最佳情境下 你会想到神殿
In a best-case scenario you think about a sanctuary
或圆形剧场 因为宗教团体会在这些地方聚集
or an amphitheater setting where faith communities gather,
这里有希望的信念 有舒缓的旋律
and there are messages of hope, there are soothing melodies,
有美妙的歌曲 有同伴
there’s good music, there’s fellowship,
所有的这些设计都是为了
and all of those combined together are designed to
提升人们的积极情绪
raise the positive emotion in someone’s life.
我旅行的时候
And I can tell you that when I travel
我去了不同的教堂 会堂 清真寺
I go to different churches, synagogues, mosques—
夏天的时候 我去了冰岛
over the summer I was in Iceland
我去了雷克雅未克的圣公会教堂
and I went to a Episcopal church in Reykjavík
所有的仪式都是用冰岛语讲的
where the entire ceremony was spoken in Icelandic
我一个词也不懂
and I didn’t understand a word,
但1个半小时的仪式后 我感觉自己升华了
but over the course of an hour and a half I felt my energy level shift
当我走出那座小教堂
and I walked out of that chapel
感觉自己更正能量了
feeling more positive,
(所以情绪)确实与环境有关系
and it has to do with the environment.
所以参加宗教团体能提升积极情绪
So positive emotions are raised by participating in faith community.
下一个 投入
Next, engagement.
最好的宗教是让人积极入世
Well the best religions are about helping people to engage in the world
包括好好经营人际关系
and engagement happens in engaging in relationships,
好好学习 好好工作
engaging in study, engaging in work,
努力做那些可以让我们的世界变得更好的事
engaging in the process hopefully ofmaking our world a better place.
这些基本上就是宗教生活的主旨
Those tend to be key themes in religious life,
而积极入世已被证明能提升生活的积极价值
and engagement has been shown to add positive value to a person’s life.
下一个 关系
Next, relationships.
关系是大多数宗教团体的核心
Well, relationships are at the heart of most faith communities.
它包括聚会
It is about bringing people together.
包括关心他人
It is about caring for people.
包括和其它的信徒 神职人员 教导员建立良好的关系
It is about having relationships with fellow congregants, clergy, educators
包括和教义的关系 以及与上帝的关系
and relationship with text and relationship with God.
这些都是关系的要素 当信徒们真实地表达自己
Those are all elements of relationships that add value to a person’s life
这些关系可以帮他们提升生活的价值
when they’re expressed in authentic ways.
下一个是意义
Then we have meaning.
在21世纪 许多人都在寻找意义
So many people are in search of meaningin the 21st century
来自伟大宗教中的智慧和文献 都是为了帮助人们
and wisdom and literature that comes from the great religions are all designed to help people
发现人生的意义和目标
discover the meaning and the purpose in their lives.
最后 是成就
And finally, accomplishment.
成就是从良好的宗教实践发展而来的核心教义之一
Accomplishment is one of the core teachings that come out of good religious practices.
让世界变得更美好
The accomplishment ofmaking the world a better place,
现在 这是犹太教的核心教义之一
now that is a core teaching in Judaism—
即修复世界 让它变得更美好
the idea of Tikkun Olam, repairing the world and making it a better place,
而且把这个当成一个需要完成的目标
and having that as a goal to accomplish both for individuals
个人和团体都要以此为目标
and as a collective religious community—
所有这些都归并在PERMA里
all that combined together in PERMA
看起来是这个积极心理学理论的完美应用
seems to be the perfect application of this theory of positive psychology.
我相信 宗教生活
And religious settings, I believe,
就是这个理论的完美应用
are that perfect application, that perfect place to
也是见证并体验PERMA和积极心理学的完美环境
see and to live the theory of PERMAand positive psychology.
现在 在积极犹太教和积极宗教中 除了PERMA
Now there’s more than just PERMA in positive Judaism and positive religion,
还有一组被研究的个性和长处
there’s also a studied set of characteristics and strengths
它们直接来自马丁.塞利格曼和克里斯.彼得森的研究结果
that come directly from the work of Martin Seligman and Chris Peterson,
他们在20世纪90年代定义了一系列的人所拥有的长处
who in the 1990s developed an inventory of strengths.
这些定义现在稍有不同
There have been some changes to this inventory,
概括地说 它列出了24个不同的
but in a nutshell it has codified 24 different
性格优势 比如
personality strengths like
感激 适应力
gratitude, resilience,
希望 乐观 勇敢 灵性 善良
hope, optimism, bravery, spirituality, goodness,
仁慈 以及其它的
kindness, and others.
他们的观点是 每个人都有独特的长处
And the idea is that each person has signature strengths,
而且随着范围的扩大
but understood in the context of the larger inventory,
人们可以更清楚地了解自己有什么长处
people can see where they fit into the scale
可以努力发展其它方面的长处
and can attempt to develop other areas of strengths
从而提高自己的生活质量
to help improve the quality of their lives.
所以在积极犹太教的实践中
So in the practice of positive Judaism
我们会非常重视这种范围
we take that inventory very seriously,
当我们考虑宗教实践的时候
and when we think about religious practice—
我们会把这些长处加入到教义中
we draw on those strengths in our teachings
使人们的宗教生活能有更好的体验
and the way in which we shape experiences for people’s religious engagement.

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有宗教信仰的人更幸福。

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oty-K-aFhEc

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