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吃便便有益身体健康?! – 译学馆
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吃便便有益身体健康?!

Why Are People Eating Poop? | What The FAQs | NowThis

Did you know eating someone else’s poop can actually be good for your health?
你知道吗 吃掉别人的便便实际上对你的健康有好处哦
It might sound gross,
说起来有点恶心
but fecal microbiota transplant
但据说在美国
is something an estimated 10, 000 Americans do at home each year.
每年都有约1万人在家进行粪菌移植
The procedure is done
在这个过程中
by transferring stool from one person to another, often orally.
一个人的粪便一般会以口服的方式转移到另一个人体内
And it’s done to fight infections associated with diarrhea,
粪菌移植的目的是治疗腹泻
abdominal cramping, and even fever.
腹部痉挛 甚至是发烧相关的感染
We’re talking to a principal investigator in the fecal transplant study
我们和研究粪菌移植的项目负责人进行了交流
to learn more about this procedure
以了解更多这个过程的相关信息
and understand why anyone would want to put someone else’s poop in their mouth.
和为什么有些人要食用他人的粪便
什么是粪菌移植?
This treatment isn’t new.
这种治疗方式并不新鲜
It’s been around for a long, long time.
它已经存在了很长很长的时间
And there’s stories of people who, in the 1950’s,
在20世纪50年代有过这样的传闻
would give people, you know,
一些人会给别人
slurries of stool in a milkshake or on a sandwich.
混有粪水的奶昔或者三明治
The History of Fecal Transplants.
粪菌移植的历史
Fecal transplants are believed to date back to over 1700 years ago.
粪菌移植可以追溯到1700多年以前
During the 4th century, Chinese scholar Ge Hong made
在4世纪时 中国的学者葛洪
yellow soup from fermented stool to treat diarrhea.
用发酵的粪便制作了黄汤来治愈腹泻
The treatment even made its way to World War II
这种治疗方式甚至在第二次世界大战中也得到了应用
where German soldiers switched it up a bit
德国士兵稍作修改
and ate camel stool to treat dysentery.
食用骆驼的粪便来治疗痢疾
Today, the procedure is used to treat clostridium difficile infection,
现在 粪菌移植用于治疗艰难梭菌感染
or C.Diff
简称C.Diff
a bacterial infection that affects the colon.
这种细菌感染会影响结肠健康
C.Diff can weaken patient’s immune systems
C.Diff病菌会削弱病人的免疫系统
and affect their treatment for things like pneumonia, cancer, and other illnesses.
影响肺炎 癌症以及其他疾病的治疗
Each year the illness affects 450,000 Americans
每年都会有45万美国人受到艰难梭菌感染的影响
and kills close to 30,000 within 30 days of diagnosis.
在确诊后30天内就会有接近3万人死亡
C.Diff is traditionally treated with antibiotics,
治疗C.Diff的传统方式是使用抗生素
but this doesn’t always work
但也不是每次都能生效
as antibiotics can also kill good bacteria,
因为抗生素也可以杀死有益细菌
worsening the patient’s condition,
导致病人的状态变差
and making it more likely for the infection to return.
从而增加再次感染的可能性
Our digestive system is home to thousands of bacteria,
我们的消化系统中生活着成千上万的细菌
both good and bad that are released in our stool.
这些细菌有好有坏 会随我们的粪便排出
So the theory is when you eat healthy poop,
因此理论上来说 当你食用了健康的粪便
the good bacteria ends up in your gastrointestinal tract,
有益细菌会进入你的肠胃
which can help to knock out the C. Diff.
有助于消灭C.Diff细菌
The idea is if you put, maybe, good bacteria in,
这种方法的原理是 如果你摄入了有益细菌
they then will kind of take over
它们可能会占据主导地位
and kind of compete with C.Diff for resources,
与C.Diff病菌竞争生存资源
and kind of grow and kind of crowd out the C. diff.
然后繁殖 将C.Diff病菌挤走
That’s called niche exclusion.
这种过程叫“排挤机制”
Another possible mechanism is
另一种可能的机制是
that the good bacteria come in
有益细菌进入身体后
and they themselves produce antibiotics as a byproduct
它们自身会产生一些抗生素作为副产物
which are effective against C. diff.
这些抗生素可以有效抵抗C.Diff病菌
And there are more kind of complicated mechanisms that they’re looking into
研究人员正在研究更复杂的机制
that have to do with our bodies metabolism of bile and bile acids.
这些机制与我们体内胆汁和胆汁酸的代谢有关
With 125 procedures done since 2011,
2011年起 随着125例移植过程的完成
researchers at Mayo Clinic in Phoenix say
菲尼克斯梅奥医学中心的研究者们表示
they have a 90% success rate in fecal microbiotic transplants.
他们进行粪菌移植的成功率能达到90%
The procedure can be done in three ways with a stool slush.
这个过程可以利用粪浆通过三种方式完成
Can be freeze fried in a capsule for you to swallow.
可以将之冷冻干燥后放入胶囊供你吞咽
Place in a tube that then push on the patient’s nose,
放在导管内 将它从病人的鼻子推入
or administered anally through an enema or a colonoscopy.
或者通过灌肠或结肠镜进行肛门给药
Fecal transplants are just now being done professionally,
粪便移植技术现在已经发展得很专业了
but they were actually first adopted by DIY community.
但事实上它们却是被DIY团体首次使用的
Fun Fact
有趣的事实
Fun fact, with the popularity of fecal transplants on the rise,
有趣的是 随着粪菌移植的普及率增加
dropping a deuce is now becoming a side hustle.
拉粑粑现在成为了一种副业
Companies like OpenBiome pay the $40 for a stool sample
像OpenBiome这样的公司会报价40美元收购粪便样品
and $50 if you drop off poop five times a week.
如果你每周拉五次粑粑会支付你50美元
So you can make up to $13000 a year
所以你一年仅靠原本会从马桶冲走的粪便
of something you would flush down the toilet anyway.
就可以赚取13000美元
The pre-screening process is rigorous though.
不过预先筛选的过程非常严格
Only 4% of potential donors are accepted.
只有4%的潜在捐赠者能入选
Researchers say acquiring stool for transplant is similar to the process
研究者们说采集粪菌移植所需粪便的流程
of donating blood to a blood bank.
与向血库献血的流程很相似
Donors are asked questions about their health,
捐献者们会被问到自身健康问题
given blood tests, and must have no GI condition.
还要接受血液检查 他们一定不能有胃肠道疾病
And all of this is done before their stool is sent to a lab
这些都要在他们把粪便送到实验室
for further rigorous testing.
进行更严格的检测之前完成
Fecal transplant is now supported
如今粪菌移植
by the Infectious Disease Society and the GI Society in Europe and in the U.S.
在治疗多发及复发性大肠杆菌感染上
as strongly supported in treatment from mutiply recurrent C.Diff infection.
得到了传染病学会和欧洲及美国的胃肠学会的大力支持
Most big cities, big hospital systems have one or more providers
许多大城市 大型医疗系统都至少拥有一位
that are offering fecal transplant.
粪菌移植的提供者
There is a fecal transplant foundation
有一个粪菌移植基金会
that tries to maintain a list to help people find someone near them.
正尝试建立一份名单 来帮助人们找到附近的捐赠者
So if you are suffering from recurrent C.Diff,
所以如果你正因反复发作的C.Diff疾病而痛苦
if you’ve had two or more recurrences,
如果你已经有两次或者更多次的复发
if you’ve failed to improve even after a long course of vancomycin,
如果长期注射万古霉素后你依然不见好转
you know most would recommend a fecal transolant at that point
通常这时就会推荐你去进行粪菌移植
Fecal transplants have showed promise in results,
从结果上看 粪菌移植很有发展前途
but there are still many unknowns.
但它对于我们来说仍有很多未知的地方
Researchers at the AGA Center of Gut and Microbiome Research and Education
AGA肠道和微生物研究与教育中心的研究者们
currently have a study underway
目前正在进行一项研究
that will track 4,000 people who’ve received transplants.
他们会追踪4000名接受过粪菌移植的人
The study will follow these patients for 10 years
该研究会对这些患者持续观察十年
and explore the effectiveness of fecal transplants
并探究粪菌移植的有效性
as well as its long and short-term effects.
包括长期和短期的影响
Now there’s nearly 200 clinical trials worldwide
现在 全世界有近200项临床试验
looking at fecal transplant for all different kinds of conditions.
研究着各种不同情况下的粪便移植
I think the next one that‘s shown some you know siginal of benifit
我想下一次会让我们看到成效的是
is ulcerative colitis,
溃疡性结肠炎
which is a form of inflammatory bowel disease.
这是一种炎症性肠病
Further afield they’re looking into other autoimmune diseases, obesity.
研究者正在扩大范围 研究其他自身免疫性疾病 肥胖症
Everybody’s looking for something that.
每个人都在验证粪菌移植对这些病的疗效
You can take stool from a skinny person and lose weight.
你可以用纤瘦的人的粑粑来减肥
But, you know, I think all of those are much more complicated.
但我认为实现这些会更加复杂
C.Diff was the low hanging fruit.
治疗C.Diff病菌是较容易实现的目标
样本
So if a fecal transplant
那么如果粪菌移植
seems like a possible treatment for you,
看起来对你可能有治疗作用
make sure you consult with your doctor,
一定要咨询你的医生
as you should with most health issues.
就像你咨询的大多数健康问题一样
Hey guys, thanks for whatching this week’s episode of What the Fact.
嗨 大家 谢谢你们观看本周的《事实是什么》
Hope you enjoyed.
希望你喜欢
If you did,make sure you hit the like button,
如果你确实喜欢 那就我们点个赞
and suscribe to our channel.
然后订阅我们的频道
Got a weird body science question?
有奇怪的人体科学问题?
Should you shall drop comment below
那你可以在底下留下评论
and who knows we might cover it.
谁知道我们会不会选中你的问题呢
Be sure to catch WTFAQS this season every Tuesday.
记得在本季度的每个星期二都来看WTFAQS哦

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视频概述

原来每年竟有那么多美国人在家吃粑粑?或者应该称为粪菌移植过程,这种过程什么呢?为什么要移植粪便?有什么好处呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gUthNZk5fSg

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