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为什么音乐节门票这么贵?

Why are music festivals so expensive? | The Economist

I’ve never been to a music festival…until today
今天是我第一次参加音乐节
Surprising I know
我知道这挺不可思议的
because in the past 20 years…
因为在过去的20年里
…they’ve become increasingly popular
音乐节越来越流行
Let’s take California’s Coachella
以加利福尼亚的Coachella音乐节为例
It’s been running since 1999 when it had 25,000 attendees
1999年举办了第一届 当时就有25000人参加
In 2017 there were almost 250,000 of them
到了2017年 观众数达到近25万
And as festivals have grown…
随着音乐节市场越来越大
…so have ticket prices
门票价格也水涨船高
In 1979 a ticket for Glastonbury,
在1979年 英国最大的音乐节Glastonbury的门票
the UK’s biggest festival, cost £5
一张只要5英镑
In 2019 it was £248
到了2019年 售价则达到了248英镑
To put things in perspective
让我们客观地分析一下
if ticket prices rose with inflation
如果门票价格是跟着通货膨胀上涨的
…it would be five times more expensive today
那么今天的票价应该是过去的五倍
In reality they’re 50 times more
但事实上 是50倍
So why are festivals so expensive?
那么为什么音乐节的门票价格这么贵呢?
Running a festival takes a huge amount of work
举办一次音乐节是一项巨大的工程
This is Jennie Jordan, she’s a festival expert
这是Jennie Jordan 对音乐节颇有研究
We never imagined the level of detail you need to go into
我们之前从未想过办一个音乐节要考虑那么多细节
Lak Mitchell is a festival producer
Lak Mitchell 是一位音乐节制作人
He runs Boomtown…
他运营着Boomtown音乐节
…one of the biggest independent music festivals in the UK
英国最大的独立音乐节之一
It’s like setting up a small town
这就像建立一座小镇
We’ve got hundreds of lines of budgets
有太多事情需要花钱
You’ve got to make sure that you’ve got water…
你需要确保音乐节场地有水
…to make sure you’ve got Wi-Fi…
有wifi
…internal traffic management, external traffic management…
场内交通管理 场外交通管理
…toilets…
还有厕所
…four different security companies…
四个不同的安保公司
…food…
食物
…stewarding…
服务人员
…drink…
饮料
…artist internal transport
音乐人的场内交通
The list is just bonkers
详细的清单真的让人抓狂
At Boomtown it also takes 12,000 crew…
Boomtown音乐节需要12000名工作人员
…1,596 tonnes of scaffolding…
1596吨脚手架
…3m litres of water and 2,000 bins…
300万公升水 2000个垃圾桶
…and all that costs
所有这些都要花钱
But then there’s one more thing that makes festivals much more expensive…
但是还有一件事让音乐节变得更费钱
…the music And actually it all comes down to this
那就是音乐 实际上这也是一场音乐节的根本所在
It’s much more difficult now to make money selling recorded music
现在通过售卖唱片来赚钱已经越来越难了
The rise of streaming has basically flipped the economics of the music industry on its head
流媒体的兴起颠覆了音乐产业的经济现状
This is Tom Standage He’s the head
这是Tom Standage
of all things digital at The Economist
他是《经济学人》数字化板块的总负责人
And…
与此同时
…a drummer in his spare time
闲暇时间他还是一名鼓手
It used to be that you made your money…
在以前你可以通过
…from selling records, selling CDs, selling LPs…
卖唱片 卖CD 卖LP来赚钱
…and you promoted them by going on tour
通过举办巡回演唱会来推销唱片
…and now you make your money by going on tour…
然而现在 你需要通过巡演来赚钱
…and releasing an album is just really an excuse for another tour
然后再发行一张专辑为下次巡演预热
And as the importance of touring has increased…
随着巡演的重要性不断提升
…so have artists’ fees
音乐人的费用也不断提升
At Woodstock in 1969
在1969年的Woodstock音乐节
…Jimi Hendrix got today’s equivalent of $125,000
Jimi Hendrix的收入相当于今天的125000美元
In 2019 at Coachella…
在2019年的Coachella音乐节上
…Ariana Grande was paid $8m
Ariana Grande的报酬是八百万美元
That’s 64 times more
是1969年的64倍
People out there really think that we’re making millions…
外行人真的以为我们办音乐节赚了几百万
…but we barely broke even last year…
但实际上我们去年差一点就破产了
…even though the festival completely sold out…
尽管音乐节的门票都售空了
…because it’s so expensive to put on
因为要运营一次音乐节真的花费巨大
Artists are really, really tricky…
艺人们也真的很狡猾
…because they will get offers from the big corporate festivals…
因为在大型的联合音乐节上
…that are like five times what we can afford
他们能收到的报酬是我们能提供的五倍
Here’s the deal
事情是这样的
Over the past decade two companies Live Nation and AEG Live…
在过去的十年里Live Nation和AEG Live两家公司
…have become a dominant force in the festival market
已经成为了音乐节市场上的主导力量
They’ve been pushing prices up…
他们一直在哄抬价格
…and buying smaller festivals out
然后收购小型的举办音乐节的公司
Now they own close to a third
单就英国市场
of the British market alone
这两家就占据了近三分之一
Live Nation’s net worth in 2019 was estimated at $15.6bn
2019年Live Nation的资本净值约为156亿美元
And they’re scaling their business models…
而且他们还在扩大业务模式
…turning the likes of the Lollapalooza festival into a franchise…
把像Lolllapalooza这样的音乐节变成特许经营性质
…and exporting it to countries across the globe
然后将其输出到全球各个国家
Companies control the risk by running a number of different festivals
这些公司通过举办数个不同的音乐节来分摊风险
That allows you to have mitigating factors…
这就使得你有机会削弱那些不利因素的影响
…if the weather’s awful one weekend…
如果这个周末的天气特别糟糕
…you’ve got another festival with income potentially…
那么几个星期之后
…a couple of weeks later
你还有可能从另一个音乐节上得到弥补
It allows them to get some economies of scale…
这使他们可以获得一些规模经济
…and it allows them to get the top artists’ tours…
而且这些收入可以用来邀请到顶级明星加入音乐节
…so that they can offer them more than one date over the summer period…
一个夏天可以邀请好几次
…and that’s very effective
这个模式非常有效
And this means that the most popular acts…
同时这也意味着最受欢迎的艺人
…headline many of the big festivals
会成为许多大型音乐节的噱头
While these economies of scale may be cost effective for the big companies…
这种规模经济对大公司来说是有成本效益的
…the risk is that festivals feel more samey
所带来的风险就是音乐节同质化
And perhaps that’s one of the reasons why overall festival attendance…
或许这就是自2016年以来
…has declined since 2016
音乐节的整体上座率下降的原因之一
In Europe 18 % of surveyed festivals
在欧洲 参与调查的音乐节中
…reported a downturn in ticket sales
有18%都存在门票售出率下降的现象
As the market gets more challenging…
随着市场越来越有挑战性
…some independent festivals have turned economic necessity…
一些独立音乐节已经把能否赚钱
…into an opportunity
看成是运气了
When we launched Boomtown…
当我们开始策划Boomtown时
…we had no chance of competing on big acts as well…
我们也没有可能与那些大型演出竞争
…so we had to kind of create this model and this experience…
所以我们就自己创造了一种
…that was unique and had its own sort of identity…
独特的 有自己风格的模式和体验
…that set itself out away from other festivals
让Boomtown与其他的音乐节区分开来
This is where it gets interesting
这就是它变得有意思的地方
A ten-year, British-audience survey
一项为期十年的英国观众调查显示
…headline acts are a deciding factor for only 8% of festival-goers
只有8%的观众会为了参演艺人而去音乐节
But 53% said the overall experience… …
而53%的受访者表示
is the reason they bought their ticket
整体的体验感才是他们买票的原因
We asked these festival-goers why they’re here
我们问了一些观众为什么来参加音乐节
A line-up will drag me in…
当我在这看到有人排队时我会被吸引
…but when I’m here, sometimes I don’t even see any music
但我在这里有时甚至都听不到音乐
I’ll be honest I don’t know any of the friggen music
老实说我对音乐一窍不通
It’s nothing to do with the music…
来这儿不是为了音乐
…it’s all atmosphere
就是为了这种氛围
And that’s part of a much bigger picture…
他们只是庞大观众中的一小部分
In the past 20 years the Western world…
在过去二十年里
…has shifted from buying things…
西方世界已经从买物品
…to buying these kinds of things
转变到买 “这种”东西
In other words, experiences
换句话说就是买 体验
My name is Joe Pine…
我是 Joe Pine
…and I’m going to tell you all about the experience economy
我来告诉你关于体验经济的一切
Joe has written a book called… …well,
Joe写了一本书
“The Experience Economy”
叫《体验经济》
Well what’s happened is we’ve gone from…
现在的状况是
…an agrarian economy based off commodities…
我们已经从以农产品为基础的农业经济
…through an industrial economy based off goods, through a service economy
转变到以商品为主的工业经济 再到服务经济
And today we’re in an experience economy
如今我们正处于体验经济的时代
What experiences really do is that they engage everyone inside of them
真正的体验就是让每个人都参与其中
It’s this engagement that the likes of Boomtown are banking on…
正是这种参与让Boomtown之类的项目
…to pull in the punters
能够以此吸引顾客
Do I know you friends?
我认识你吗 朋友
In 2019 Boomtown hired 2,000 actors…
2019年 Boomtown雇佣了2000名演员
…to draw festival-goers into a variety of immersive experiences…
在音乐节的110个场馆里
…spread across 110 venues throughout the festival
将参加音乐节的观众引入各种沉浸式体验之中
I have a question I would like to ask…
我想问一个问题
…can you tell me…
你能告诉我
…who really was the man behind the mask?
到底谁才是幕后主使?
And it’s all designed to create this unique communal experience
所有这些都是为了创造这种独特的公众体验
Living in the digital age that we are now…
生活在现如今的数字时代
…there’s more need than ever for people to connect…
人们比以往任何时候都更需要连接感
…and that’s what festivals do the best
这也就是音乐节最棒的地方
And the digital age also means we can document these experiences
身处数字时代也意味着我们可以记录下这些体验
And of course show them off online
当然也可以把这些体验晒到网上
We take selfies not because…
我们自拍不是因为
…we think we’re going to get the perfect picture…
我们想要拍出最完美的照片
…but because we were there and it proves that we were there
而是因为我们当时在那里 而自拍证明了这件事
These are similar to that souvenir
这就像纪念品
that you picked up on your seaside holiday
你假期在海边捡回的纪念品
…that means absolutely nothing to anybody else…
对其他人没有任何意义
…but is so important to you
但对你自己十分重要
That is if you like the kind of evolution of what happened before
这就是过去时代的进化版本
If you went round to someone’s house…
如果你去别人家串门
…you could see what records they had, what CDs they had…
你就能看到他有哪些唱片 有哪些CD
…and that was a kind of social media
这就是一种社交媒体
Really posting stuff on Instagram is just the kind of updated version of that
在Instagram上发布东西其实就是这种形式的升级版本
And in the spirit of keeping up to date…
本着与时俱进的态度
…pretty much every music festival is now selling the experience
现在几乎每一个音乐节都在兜售体验
Gather round the future
围绕未来
So what else will convince festival-goers…
还有什么其他东西让音乐节观众相信
…that their tickets offer value for money?
他们的票能值回那个钱呢
What’s the future of this incredible city?
这座伟大的城市的未来如何?
In other words…
换句话说
…what’s more experiential than experience?
还有什么比亲身经历更能有体验感呢
There is an experience that changes us in some way…
有一种体验在某种程度上改变了我们
…and that we call a transformation…
我们称之为转化
…and a transformation is the fifth and final economic offering…
转化是第五种 也是最后一种
…this progression of economic value
提供经济价值进化的经济模式
We’re using experiences as the raw material to guide people to change…
我们以体验作为素材去引导人们改变
…to help them achieve their aspirations
去帮助人们实现自己的愿望
So expect to hear that a ticket to a festival in the future…
因此我们很期待未来的音乐节门票
…will be an investment in a truly transformative experience… …
能成为一项对逼真的转化体验的投资
one that will offer an opportunity to help you discover your better self…
一项提供机会让你发现更好的自己的投资
…and one that might even be worth it
一项物有所值的投资

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视频概述

简述了音乐节门票贵的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

饮马赴来年

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PMfkO3Pv4VQ

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