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为什么我很招蚊子? – 译学馆
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为什么我很招蚊子?

Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To Me?!

你是小伙伴中总招蚊子的那个吗?
Are you the person in the group who’s always getting bitten by mosquitoes?
我就很爱招蚊子
Because I certainly am
招蚊子并非无稽之谈
and science has shown that this is a thing –
蚊子确实更偏爱某些人
that mosquitoes are more attracted to some people than others
至于原因嘛
And the reason for that is
至少部分是由于基因的缘故
at least partially genetic,
所以23andMe基因公司才会赞助本视频
which is why this video is supported by 23andMe,
这家公司主营读出你的基因序列
a company that reads sections of your genetic code
然后帮你理解里面蕴含的内容
and then helps you understand, what’s in there.
他们目前正在研究人体基因的某些点
Now, they’ve actually been involved
并已经认定这些基因点会
in some research that has identified particular spots on your DNA
或多或少地让你更招蚊子
that make you more or less likely to be attractive to mosquitoes,
在本视频中
and in this video
我们将去验证一下
I want to put that to the test.
所以我飞去了新墨西哥州立大学
So I flew to New Mexico State University
拜访了蚊子研究教授伊莫·汉森
to meet mosquito man Professor Immo Hansen.
你好
Everyone:Hello!
我们收集了一实验室的蚊子
Hansen:We have a collection of lab strains
汉森培养着不同种类的蚊子
Derek: Here, he maintains colonies of many different species of mosquitoes,
有一种外来蚊子是用他自己的血饲养的
and one exotic strain he actually feeds with his own blood(!)
不不不 我是认真的 这些真是我的血喂养的
Hansen: No, no, I’m serious. These ones are made from my blood.
-真的吗 -是的 绝对是真的
D: Really!? H: Yes! Absolutely, yeah.
-你亲自喂? -它们都是我一个人喂的
D:You feed these!?H: And I’m the only one feeding them.
我总不能要我的学生去喂吧 到这就像噩梦一样
I can’t ask my students, you know, that would be a nightmare
你怎样用自己的血喂蚊子?
getting permissions to this room here.D: How do you blood feed them?
-直接把手伸进去吗?-是的 直接伸手 再等待片刻
D:With just, sticking your arm in there?H: Well, I just put my arm in there and wait.
-你不觉得痒吗?-真的很痒
D:Is it psychologically itchy or…?H: No it is really itchy
我现在大概被咬了25口
Yeah, and I’m getting, I mean, 25 bites or so right now.
蚊子需要人类的血蛋白来产卵
Mosquitoes need our blood proteins to make their eggs,
所以只有母蚊子会咬人
so only the female mosquitoes bite.
卵被孵化成蠕动的幼虫 再成蛹
The eggs hatch into these wriggly larvae, which develop into pupae
破茧飞翔后 就算是成年了
before becoming flying, adult mosquitoes.
长大后的母蚊子再次寻找血蛋白以产更多的卵
Then they, once again, seek out vertebrate blood to make more eggs.
而整个生命循环只需花费两周
The whole lifecycle takes just two weeks!
但我关心的是:我是蚊子的理想目标吗?
But what I wanted to know is: am I a desirable target?
如果我很招蚊子 那这代表什么?
How can we figure out if I’m attractive to mosquitoes?
是这样的 我们有一种Y型管 内含气压保持器
Okay, we have a Y-tube, basically, which has a holding chamber.
我们把蚊子放进去
We put the mosquitoes down here,
里面有能引起气流的小扇叶 速度是4m/s
there’s a little fan inducing a draft, something like 4 meters per second.
接下来我们把诱饵放进保持器里
We’re gonna insert a bait into one of these chambers,
放进绿色或黄色的管子里
in the green or the yellow one.
-诱饵 是说我吗?-是的 就是你
So, by bait, you’re saying me?H: Yes, you, exactly.
把你的手放进去
You put your hand in there.
最好先摩擦一会
[It] would be good if you would rub your hand first,
-要是你出汗了…-弄点皮肤上的油?
H: So if you’re sweaty… D: Get some oils?
就是这样!
H: Yes!
-脖子上有很多汗 -对 确实是
D:This is the right spot…H: That’s where the good stuff is, exactly.
这些蚊子只会咬人
Almost feeds exclusively on humans.
它们都是靠人血饲养的
They are really specialized on biting humans.
-很高兴知道这些-是么
That’s good to know…H: Yeah!
这个气压保持器里面有20只蚊子
There’s 20 mosquitoes in the holding chamber.
现在就看它们是决定来我这边
And they’re gonna decide whether to come and find me,
还是去什么都没有的另一边
or go down the other side and… they find nothing.
-是的 -我们现在要放蚊子了 我看见它们来了
H:Right. D: We’re releasing the mosquitoes. I see them coming!
噢 它们不该走这边
Oh, he’s chosen wrong!
看见了吗
Do you see that?
朋友 你真的很招蚊子
Man, you are attractive!
-真的吗 -抱歉 事实如此
D:Really? H: I mean, sorry I-
你对蚊子有很强的吸引力
You are a strong attractant to mosquitoes.
它们都去了你那边
They all went in your direction.
-没一个去另一边的 -是的
D:None of them went the other way.H:Yes!
(笑)太不可思议了
(laughing) This is amazing!
-有一只搁浅在这里了-我不希望它们这么热情地回应我
Well, there’s one stranded in here…D: I did not expect to have such a strong… response, like
你看这些蚊子
D: You see all those mosquitoes…
这个实验发现我们之所以能吸引蚊子
D: This type of test was actually used to discover that the basis
至少基因起到部分作用
for our attractiveness to mosquitoes is at least partially genetic.
研究者招募了18对女性同卵双胞胎
Researchers recruited 18 pairs of identical female twins and 19 pairs
和19对女性异卵双胞胎
of non identical, or fraternal female twins.
她们都做了这个Y型管的测试
Then they used the Y-tube Test
通过测量飞往双胞胎所站位置的蚊子数量
to evaluate the mosquito attractiveness of each individual, measured by the fraction of mosquitoes
来评估个人对蚊子的吸引力
who correctly flew to the arm of the tube where the twin was standing.
科学家们发现双胞胎对蚊子的吸引力是相关联的
What scientists found is that the mosquito attractiveness of twins is correlated,
也就是说 你越吸引蚊子
that is, the more attractive you are to mosquitoes,
那你的双胞胎姐妹也是如此
the more likely your twin is, too.
但意料之中的是 是否招蚊子也受环境和日常膳食的影响
But that’s… not all that surprising, and could be caused by environmental factors, or a common diet.
不过与异卵双胞胎相比
But, comparing identical twins to fraternal twins
而同卵双胞胎的相关性更高
revealed the correlation was higher for identical twins.
这有力地表明基因会影响你对蚊子的吸引力
This strongly suggests genetics influence how attractive you are to mosquitoes.
因为比起异卵双胞胎
Since the identical twins share more of the same genes
同卵双胞胎的基因相同的部分更多
than fraternal twins, this explains
如果基因决定了蚊子喜欢你的程度
why their mosquito attractiveness would be
那就不难解释
more closely correlated if it really is genetics that
你的蚊子吸引力的问题了
determines how much mosquitoes like you.
刚才那个实验说明我真的很招蚊子吗?
D: With that last test, I was clearly attractive to these mosquitoes.

H: Yes.
不过我得和另一个人比较
D: Except we weren’t comparing me to any other human,
-我们刚刚只是与没有人的情况比较-是这样的
D: we were just comparing me to a control, no human.H: Exactly, yes.
-那我要不要和我老婆拉克尔比一下?-也行
D: So, what if we compare myself with my wife Raquel? H: Uh-huh?
-正常情况下 我会被蚊子咬 而她不会-嗯
D: Normally, I get bitten and she doesn’t.H: Okay.
所以这应该是一个很好的对照实验 对吧
D: So this should be a good test… maybe?
我们看一下在实验室环境下谁更招蚊子
D: To see whether under lab conditions…
我们可以重现…
H: We can we reproduce your…
-重现刚刚发生的 然后再一次证明我更招蚊子-对 是这样
D: We’ll reproduce our anecdotal finding. That I’m more attractive. A little once again… H: Exactly, anecdotal evidence
准备好了么
D:…preparing.
-好的 -把手放在这里
H: Okay! D: Hands in position!
对 你看蚊子闻到了 有的正循着气味往前飞
H: Yeah, see, they actually start to wake up. They… smelled something. Something’s going on here.
-好的 -我们看到了什么?
Okay.D: What are we seein’?
哇哦
D: Whoa!
好多蚊子都来我这里了 你呢?
D: I’m getting a good amount over here, but so are you?
我觉得我招的蚊子更多 你那里好像只有三只
D: Let’s see. I think I’m getting more. It looks to me like you got three.
-好吧 现在我要停止实验了 -没问题
H: Okay, I’m gonna stop the experiment right now.D: Alright.
好的 咱们来数一下 我觉得你那边有7只
H: *chuck!* Okay, now let’s count. I think it’s seven on your side here?
-保持器里有5只 -5只啊
Lab assistant: Five in the holding.H: Five in the holding.
而你那边的蚊子就比较多了
H: And quite a few on your side!
-所以谁被咬了?-我被咬了
H: So, who gets bitten?D: I get bitten.
你被咬了
H: You get bitten!
-一般情况下 我们会重复该实验7到8次 -好的
H: In reality, we would repeat this experiment, maybe eight times or so. D: Right.
同时让实验者变换位置 不过我觉得现在的结果已经能很好地说明问题了
H: And switching you guys around, but I think this is a good way to show how this works.
好的 所以这个结果在科学上并非特别严谨
D: Okay, so that result was not particularly scientifically rigorous,
但确实再现了我们在野外的经历
but it did reproduce our experience in the wild,
证明我更有吸引力
D: which is that I am much more attractive…..
至少相对于拉克尔来说 我很招蚊子待见
Well at least when it comes to mosquitoes, than Raquel.
但问题是 招蚊子是否要归结到基因问题上
D: But the question is, I guess, does this come down to our genetics?
所以我们吐了些唾液在采集管里 然后送去检验
R: Yeah, so, we spat into some tubes and sent them off to be tested.
是的 所以我们对2017年23andMe的一项研究很感兴趣
D: Right, and we were interested in seven particular
其中提到了基因中的7个位置
D: locations on our DNA, which were located in a 2017 study that involved 23andMe.
23andMe进行实验的方式就是你注册后可以选择参与实验
D: So the way 23andMe works is, when you sign up, you can opt in to be part of research,
然后16000个人参与了研究
D: and 16 000 people agreed to be part of this study
并评估了他们认为的对蚊子的吸引力
and rate their perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes.
所以科学家们要做的就是一项全基因组关联研究
D: So then what the scientists did was a genome-wide association study, that is, they looked at all the DNA
即观察那些说自己招蚊子和不招蚊子的参与者
D: of all of those participants and tried to see if there were commonalities amongst the people who
观察所有的DNA 看他们相同基因位点的基因是否不同
D: said they were attractive to mosquitoes and that were different to the people who said they weren’t attractive to mosquitoes.
然后科学家确定了7个特别的基因位点
D: And they identified seven particular locations on the DNA. Seven single letter changes which seemed
7个和招蚊子程度有关的基因变化
D: to be associated with different levels of attractiveness to mosquitoes.
-然后我们拿到了结果 你想看一下吗? -想 我很好奇
D: So we have our results back, and do you wanna see them? R: I do. I do, I’m very curious.
好的 咱们来看一下
D: Alright, let’s pull it up here.
可以看到7个位点和蚊子吸引力有关
D: Okay, so of the seven locations that are related to mosquito attractiveness,
而我们俩其中4个的DNA完全相同
it turns out we have the identical DNA at four of them.
-所以可以排除一下 -对
D: So you can rule those out. R: Okay.
也就是我俩之间实际上有3个不同的DNA
D: Which leaves only three areas where we actually have differing DNA.
所以第一个位置这里 你有一个基因字母的改变
So, at the first location, you have one copy of a letter change
这就使你免遭蚊子攻击
which actually makes you significantly
哦 不会吧
D: *protected* from mosquitoes.R: Oh, no way!
对 它会减少你对蚊子的吸引力
D: Yeah, it’s associated with decreased attractive to mosquitoes
而我的基因序列则没有任何变化
I do not have any letter changes at that location.
然后是第二个咱们不同的位置
Now, at the second location where we differ, I have
其中一个字母的改变降低了我对蚊子的吸引力 所以对我有利
a letter change compared to you that makes *me* less attractive to mosquitoes, so more protected.
很有趣
R: Interesting.
如果你观察这上面两个基因变异的显著性
D: If you look at the significance of those two letter changes,
-会发现你的显著性是我的两倍 -嗯
yours is about twice as significant than mine.R: Okay.
但是现在我们都有一个能让蚊子远离的基因变异
D: But still we both have a protective letter switch.
然后 最后一个片段咱们之间很显然是不同的
So, in the last snip we actually differ significantly.
我有两个完全一样的基因序列 使我更招蚊子
And I have two copies of a variant that makes me more attractive to mosquitoes.
而这是唯一与吸引蚊子的能力有关的片段
This was the only snip which was associated with being more attractive to mosquitoes,
我有两个GG序列 你一个也没有
and I have two copies of that change, and you have no copies of that change.
-很有道理 -总之 基因真的和是否招蚊子有关系
R: So that makes sense.D: So overall, I would say our genetics really adds up here.
当然了 我不能保证两者之间有百分之百的关联
And of course, we can’t say that this proves that it is right, but it is definitely consistent
但基因和是否招蚊子之间确实存在一致性
with these snips actually being associated with your attractiveness to mosquitoes,
这只是根据我们的经验来判断
and that’s sort of…borne out by our experience.
很有道理
R: That’s so cool!
现在 基因序列对我们招蚊子程度的具体影响还没有证实
Now, it’s unclear exactly how these genetic changes might make us more or less attractive to mosquitoes,
但是否招蚊子
but it’s likely that it has something to do
还和人体释放的气味 挥发性化学物质
with the odor or the volatile chemicals
以及表皮微生物 细菌之间
that our bodies give off, and due to the microbiome,
存在一定的关联
the bacteria on our skin.
蚊子喜欢的其中一个特征就是二氧化碳
One of the main signals that mosquitoes like to follow is carbon dioxide.
所以如果你的新陈代谢较快
So that means if you have a higher metabolism,
或者你一直在做运动
or if you’ve just been exercising,
或者你是个大块头 或者你怀孕了
or if you’re a bigger person, or even if you’re pregnant,
这些情况都会是你更招蚊子
you are more likely to attract mosquitoes.
蚊子还会被人体释放的其它挥发物吸引到
But mosquitoes are also attracted to some other volatiles
比如说乳酸 丙酮 氨
that we give off, things like lactic acid, acetone and ammonia.
但是科学家也发现一些化学物质
But scientists have also found some chemicals that repel,
会抑制或者减弱蚊子找到我们的能力
or appear to impair mosquitoes’ ability to find us.
人类自然释放的化学物质有辛醛 壬醛
Those chemicals we naturally give off are octanal, nonanal,
癸醛 还有甲基庚烯酮
decanal, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one.
所以 为什么基因很重要呢?
So, why is this important?
研究者认为
Well the researchers estimate
我们对蚊子的吸引力与基因的关系正如身高 智商与基因的关系一样密切
that our attractiveness to mosquitoes is about as hereditary as height
也就是说
or IQ, that is to
基因扮演着重要的角色
say genetics play a significant role here,
所以理解这种关系非常重要
so understanding that relationship is really important,
特别是和其它动物相比
especially when you consider that, of all the animals,
蚊子对人类健康的影响更大
mosquitoes have the greatest impact on human health.
-蚊子对人类来说一直是很坏的动物吗?-绝对是
D: Are mosquitoes the worst animal of all time for humans?H: Absolutely.
这是肯定的 毫无疑问
H: Absolutely, there’s no question about that.
患疟疾而死的人多于人杀死的人
Malaria has killed more people than people have killed people.
蚊子是世界上最危险的动物
They are the most dangerous animal in the world.
据估计 死亡的人里有一半是蚊子杀死的
D: By some estimates, mosquitoes have killed more than half of the humans who have ever lived.
这个数据一直饱受争议
Now, that estimate has been debated and is
大家认为它太高了 但是即使如此
likely too high, but even so, this year,
每年确实会有一百万人死于
over a million people will die
蚊子诱发的疾病
of mosquito-borne illnesses.
所以就算没有一半
So if not half,
死于蚊子诱因的人类数量
certainly a significant number of humans have died
也可能超过任何一种其它病因
due to mosquitoes, probably more than any other single cause,
这让我不禁思考:
which led me to wonder:
你觉得人类为了避免疾病才进化出蚊子讨厌的气味吗?
D: Do you think humans may have evolved this trait to smell worse to mosquitoes as an adaptation to avoid the diseases? Or…
还是某些人不招蚊子只是偶然因素?
D: is it just by accident that some people are less attractive to mosquitoes than others?
……
H:…….
这是个好问题[两人笑]
H: …That is a really good question![both laugh]
既然谈到进化问题 不如想一下:
D: And while we’re on the subject of evolution, consider this:
如果你感染了疟疾
if you ever contract malaria,
疟疾会改变你体内的化学反应
it actually changes your body chemistry
让你释放一种招蚊子的气味
to make you produce an odor that makes you more attractive to mosquitoes.
想一想
Think about that!
疟原虫进化了
The malaria parasite has evolved so that,
这样当它进入宿主体内
when it’s in its host,
就会让宿主更招蚊子
it makes the host more attractive to mosquitoes…
而正是蚊子传播了疟疾
mosquitoes are the thing that transmit malaria!
太惊人了 真是不可思议
It’s phenomenal! I mean evolution is incredible!
本期veritasium视频由 23andMe赞助
This episode of veritasium is supported by 23andMe,
23andMe公司的名字由来是
a company whose name comes from the fact that
人类正好有23对染色体
humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes,
该公司的宗旨是
and the point of the company is to help people
帮助人类理解染色体中的信息
understand what’s written in your chromosomes.
现在 此时此刻
Now, at the minute, you can’t get access to
你不能参与蚊子吸引力的实验了
the mosquito attractiveness test,
但或许未来的某一天 你有望参加
but maybe, one day in the future, you will be able to.
现在你可以通过该公司了解大批量的信息:
Right now, you can access tons of information
人体的理化特性 健康方面
about your physical traits, about aspects of your health,
基因起源 也就是你从何处来的问题
and about where you DNA and, I guess, you come from.
我把我的来历告诉大家
So I thought I would share my results with you.
你们可以从地图上看到
I come from all over the world as you
我的血统遍及全世界
can see from the map, but significantly more
但更主要的是欧洲 我有95%的欧洲血统
from Europe, about 95 % European.
然后再往深了挖 你可以看到
You can drill down into that and see that
我是英国人 爱尔兰人 法国人 德国人的后裔
I’m largely British and Irish, and French
还有一点斯堪的纳维亚血统
and German, with a bit of Scandinavian.
我觉得有趣的是
What’s interesting to me is,
我有3.3%的南亚血统 这一点我家人也怀疑过
there’s a 3.3 % South Asian which is something I think my family suspected,
但并不确信
but didn’t know for sure, so
所以这些信息真的很有意思
it’s interesting the types of information you can find
你可以发现储存在你基因里的东西
out which is stored in your DNA.
所以如果你想知道储存在自己基因里的信息
So, if you wan na find out about the information in your DNA,
请前往23andme.com/veritasium网站
you can go to 23andme.com/veritasium.
感谢23andMe公司赞助Veritasium频道
So I want to thank 23andMe for supporting Veritasium,
也感谢大家的观看
and I want to thank you for watching.

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视频概述

为什么蚊子总是咬我?为什么酒精、大蒜、维E都不能拯救我?是因为体温、体味、新陈代谢,还是天生的基因问题?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38gVZgE39K8

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