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人类乳房为什么这么大 – 译学馆
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人类乳房为什么这么大

Why Are Human Breasts So Big

[欢快的音乐]
[bright music]
乳房尽管有各种不同形状和大小
Breasts come in different shapes and sizes
但是它们有个共性
but there’s one thingthey all have in common.
对人类来说 它们很独特
They are unique to humans.
地球上有5000多种哺乳动物
More than 5,000 mammalianspecies inhabit this planet,
而人类是唯一一种有着
yet homo sapiens are the only life forms
永久性乳房的物种
with permanent breasts.
有些人可能认为人类这种独特的乳房很性感
Some may call this human anomaly sexy,
但它也引出了这个问题
but it also begs the question,
为什么人类乳房如此之大
why are human breasts so big,
它们是进化失误导致的结果吗?
and were they an evolutionary mistake?
科技内核
其他哺乳动物都会在排卵期或哺乳期
Every other mammaldevelops temporary breasts
发育临时性乳房
during ovulation and, or nursing.
它们的目的基本上就是生产母乳
Basically their purposeis to produce milk,
所以一旦不需要母乳了 乳房也就随之消失了
so once the milk is gone,the breasts disappear.
但女性人类并非如此
But this isn’t the case for female humans
她们的乳房在青春期而不是在怀孕期发育
whose breasts form duringpuberty, not pregnancy.
所以在我们进化的某个时候乳房出现了变化
So at some point in ourevolution, something changed.
是什么造成这种变化的呢?
But what?
例如 在1987年 生物学家蒂姆·卡罗探讨过
For example, in 1987,biologist Tim Caro explored
关于这个问题的七个现有理论
seven existing theories on this subject.
一个理论是乳房可以让母亲们
One was that breasts allowed mothers
把新生儿放在髋部进行喂奶
to nurse newborns from their hip,
这可以让她们更方便的做其他事情
giving them more mobility to multitask.
但它没有解释为什么乳房
But it doesn’t explainwhy breasts stick around
在哺乳阶段结束后仍然存在
after the nursing stage is over.
也许查尔斯·达尔文最先提出的理论最普及
Perhaps the most popularidea was first proposed
后来由动物学家德斯蒙德·莫里斯
by Charles Darwin and laterexplored by zoologist,
在他1967年的书《裸猿》里加以阐述
Desmond Morris, in his1967 book, The Naked Ape.
莫里斯认为乳房作为性别符号进化了
In it, Morris suggeststhat breasts evolved
来代替其它灵长类雌性
as a sex symbol, to replacethe swelling rear end
在排卵期丰满的臀部这一性别符号
of other female primates during ovulation.
我们的祖先开始直立行走后
Once our ancestorsstarting walking upright,
性器官就不那么明显了
the sexual organs were nolonger as obvious to spot,
所以男性无法知道女性何时性成熟
so males had no way of knowing when a female was sexually mature,
而乳房可能因此而生
and breasts may have formed as a result.
这个理论
This theory would
虽然可以解释为什么女性的胸部在青春期会膨胀
at least explain why women’s chests swell during puberty,
但是仍然无法解释为什么胸部
but it still can’t explain why they
在更年期后仍然存在
stick around after menopause.
让我们仔细看看人类的乳房
Let’s take a closer lookat the human breast.
比起其它雌性哺乳动物 最大的区别是
The big difference isthat it contains more fat
它含有更多的脂肪
than other female mammals.
脂肪填充乳房组织 赋予其形状
The fat fills out the breast tissue, giving it shape,
有点像哺乳期的母乳 但却是永久性的
sort of like milk, but permanent.
人类的乳房可以变得如此之大
Human breasts can become so large
甚至导致女性背部和胸部疼痛
it can cause back and chest pain.
这就是为什么很多女性会做乳房减脂手术
This is why many womenget breast reductions.
仅仅在2016年
More than 61,000 receiveda breast reduction
美国就有61000多次乳房减脂手术
in 2016, in the US alone.
而且乳房不仅会让有些人不舒服
But breasts aren’t onlyuncomfortable for some,
它们还可能是致命的
they can also be deadly.
乳腺癌是癌症相关死亡的头号原因
Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer related deaths
在世界各地的女性中
in women, world wide.
每年大约有150万女性受此影响
It effects roughly one and ahalf million women each year
并在2015年造成57万人死亡
and it killed 570,000 of them in 2015.
然而据科学家报道
Yet as far as scientists can tell,
乳腺癌在其他灵长类动物身上并不常见
breast cancer is not commonamong other primates.
这可能是因为癌症的风险随着年龄而增加
This could be because the riskof cancer increases with age,
而其他灵长类动物的寿命不足以患上乳腺癌
and other primates don’t live long enough to develop breast cancer,
又或许
or perhaps,
它可能与永久性乳房组织本身有关
it could have something to do with the permanent breast tissue itself.
卡拉汉博士:癌症在快速分裂的组织中
– [Dr. Callahan] Cancer is more common
更常见
in rapidly dividing tissue.
每次细胞诞生和死亡时
Every time cells are born and die,
在细胞周期内
there is an opportunitywithin the cell cycle
修复DNA的时候都有可能出错
to make mistakes in repairing DNA
而修复出错的细胞
and essentially, a cell with mistakes
可以变成癌细胞
can become a cancerous cell.
乳房组织快速分裂发育
Breast tissue divides at a rapid pace,
所以更有可能出错
so there’s a greateropportunity to make mistakes.
旁白:这就可以解释为什么切除两个乳房
– [Narrator] That may explainwhy removing both breasts
女性患乳腺癌的几率会降低95%
reduces a woman’s riskof breast cancer by 95%.
不可否认 乳房在人类文化和社会中
Of course breasts haveestablished their place
都有一定地位
in human culture and society.
她们可以让女性感受到需求 解放 权利
They can make women feelwanted, liberated, or empowered.
仅仅基于它们的吸引力
And they’ve helped build entire empires
就帮助女性建立了整个帝国
based simply on their power to attract.
不管好坏
It looks like, for better or worse,
这就是人类的乳房
human breasts are here to stay.
[愉快的音乐]
[bright music]

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视频概述

永久性乳房是人类独有的生理特征,而且人类乳房为什么这么大?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

林邑

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pXSavPNvLNY

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