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为什么迪士尼的公主们越来越逆生长?

Why Are Disney Princesses Aging in Reverse?

感谢Wix赞助PBS数字工作室
Thanks for Wix for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
聪明刷
It’s OKAY to be SMART.
大家好 我是乔
Hey guys, Joe here.
现在我是一位爸爸了
So I’m a dad now.
我的妻子给了我这些袜子
And my wife got me these socks.
上面印满了我儿子的脸
Covered in my son’s face.
我的妻子给了我这些袜子
And my wife got me these socks.
印满了我儿子的脸
Covered in my son’s face.
再也没有比这更可爱的袜子了
Pretty much the cutest socks ever.
既然当爹了
Now that I’m a dad,
我知道在未来的十年里我基本上只能看
I realize I’m basically only going to watch animated movies for the
动画片了
next decade.
当我开始回想
And as I started thinking back
这些年红过的迪士尼电影时 我注意到
about all the great Disney movies through the years, I noticed
公主们总有哪些不对劲
something weird has been happening to theprincesses.
在最早的迪士尼影片中
In the earliest Disney films,
公主们或多或少都像真的人类女性
the princesses more or less look like real, human women.
但这些年来 奇怪的事情发生了
But through the years, something strange happens.
跟身体比起来 她们的头变得更大了
heads get bigger compared to their bodies.
跟头比起来 她们的眼睛变得更大了
and their eyes get bigger compared to their heads.
到冰雪公主埃尔莎时
By the time we get to Elsa,
这位22岁的冰雪公主看起来并不像成年女性
this 22-year old Frozen princess doesn’t look like adult female.
她的身体比例和8岁孩子一样
She has the body ratios of an 8 years old.
另一个公主莫阿娜应当是16岁
Moana is supposedly 16 years old,
但她的身材比例却像4岁孩子的一样
but she has the body ratios of a 4 year old.
迪士尼的公主们看起来越来越像孩子
Disney princesses have been looking more andmore like children.
这样的“本杰明·巴顿奇事”可不仅仅发生在公主们身上
And this case of the Benjamin Buttons isn’t just happening to princesses.
事实上 全卡通界都是这样的
In fact, this is true all over Toon-Town.
几乎所有的卡通角色的设计都随时间改变了
The designs of almost all cartoon characters have changed over time,
并且大多都是以同样的方式做出的改变
and almost always in the same way.
随着她们年龄的增长 她们越来越逆生长
As they get older, they age in reverse.
然而在发育过程中 人体最复杂的部分总是抢得先机
Throughout development, the most complex parts of our bodies get a literal headstart.
这就是为什么新生儿的眼睛已经是成人直径的75%
That’s why a newborn’s eyes are already 75 %
我们的大脑
of their adult diameter, and our brains
在婴儿三个月大时就能达到成人体积的55%
hit 55% of their adult volume by 3 monthsof age.
小身 大头和大眼睛
Small bodies, big heads, big eyes.
生物学家Konrad Lorenz推测
Biologist Konrad Lorenz speculated
这些婴儿的特征触发了成年哺乳动物中
that these babyish features trigger an instinct in adult
给予爱和关注的天性
mammals to give love and attention.
当我给你看这张小猫的图片时
When I show you this photo of a kitten,
你的大脑发生了一些反应让你想去
something happens in your brain that makes you want
拥抱和喂养它——除非你是个没有感情的动物
to cuddle and feed it–unless you’re somekind of unfeeling monster.
换句话说
In other words,
“可爱”是天生的秘密武器
“ cuteness ” is nature’s secret weapon
它能说服成年人去照顾婴儿们
to persuade adults into caring for babies.
迪士尼就是在用同样的生物学陷阱
Disney is just using the same biological trick
来鼓励观众去支持它们的卡通角色
to encourage audiences to root for their characters.
这就是为什么卡通的主角们总是有青少年的特征
That’s why cartoon protagonists tend to have juvenile characteristics,
而坏人们
and the villains…
没有
not so much.
但这不仅仅发生在童话界
But this doesn’t just happen in Fantasyland.
下面哪一个你更愿意抱呢?
Which would you rather cuddle?
这只查理士王小猎犬
This cavalier king charles spaniel?
还是这只狼?
Or this wolf?
这只耷耳朵的粘人猎犬被人为选择性地培育地可爱
This floppy-eared ball of snuggles has been selectively bred to be cute.
它在成年后保留了少年时的特征 也就是生物学家说的幼态持续
It retains juvenile features into adulthood,or, what biologists call neoteny.
我们在许多驯养动物中都能看到幼态持续
We see neoteny in many domesticated animals.
尽管为了可爱的挑选可以解释猎犬
Although selecting for cuteness can explain the spaniel,
但是猪这样的动物也表现出幼态持续
animals like pigs show neoteny too.
为什么古人类会关心他们养来吃肉的
Why would ancient humans care about the cuddle-ability
动物们的可陪伴能力呢
of something they were raising for bacon? Well,
也许可爱只是一个附带效果
maybe cuteness is just a side-effect?
变成家养动物的最重要的品质是…温驯
The most important trait in becoming a domesticatedanimal is… tameness.
不管你把它当同伴 劳工还是当食物
Whether it’s a companion, a worker, or a food source,
你不能和可怕的或者好斗的动物
you can’t have a productive
产生有益的关系
relationship with fearful or aggressive animals.
那种战斗或逃跑反应是
That fight or flight response is something
大多数动物在变老时才学到的
that most animals only acquire as they get
小动物们对人类还是很淡定放松的
older–baby animals are pretty chill withhumans.
所以 一个某种方式上不会“长大”的动物
So an animal that somehow never “ grows up ”
在某种意义上也许是驯化的最佳
in that sense might make the best candidate
候选人
for domestication.
20世纪50年代早期
Beginning in the 1950s,
苏维埃科学家Dmitry Belyaev开始了一项育种实验来研究这个理论
Soviet scientist Dmitry Belyaev began a breeding experiment to study
他用野生银狐做了实验
this idea, using wild silver foxes.
测试了狐狸们对与人类接触的反应
The foxes were tested for their reaction to human contact,
只有那些
and only the foxes that were
对实验人员友好的狐狸才可以被培育
friendly toward experimenters were allowedto breed.
仅仅20代之后
After just 20 generations,
他的狐狸不仅行为变了 外貌也变了
his foxes had not only changed in behavior, but also in appearance.
拥有软垂的耳朵 更小的下颌
Floppy ears, smaller jaws,
和更短的只要有人就摇个不停的尾巴
and shorter tails that now wagged whenever humans were around.
Belyaev记下了荷尔蒙和大脑化学物质的变化
Belyaev noted changes in hormones and brain chemistry
他怀疑这种变化能够
that he suspected were capable of
重塑狐狸的外部特征
reshaping the foxes’ external features.
这告诉我们什么呢?
What does this tell us?
如果你选择了一种幼稚的特质
If you select for one childish trait,
那么一堆其他特质也会随之而来
a bunch of others tend to come along with it.
进化生物学家Stephen J.Gould注意到
Evolutionary biologist Stephen J. Gould noticed that the same was true
这也适用于世界上
of the world’s most
最著名的卡通人物: 米老鼠
famous cartoon character: Mickey Mouse.
米奇曾是…一个混蛋
OG Mickey was… kind of a jerk.
但随着它的性格变得柔软甜美 它的外貌也变了
But as his personality got softer and sweeter, so did his appearance.
到了20世纪50年代 米奇不仅成了儿童喜爱的老鼠
By the 1950s, Mickey had not only become the child-like mouse we know today,
他也成了
he’d become
一个好人
a nice guy.
但除了宠物和卡通片 你也可以在自己身上看到幼态持续
But beyond pets or cartoons, you can also see neoteny in yourself.
很多生物学家承认在许多方面人类是个巨婴
Most biologists agree that humans are, inmany ways, big babies.
和其他成年灵长类相比我们体毛很少
Compared to other adult primates, we grow less body hair,
四肢更短 脸更扁平
have shorter limbs, and flatter faces.
如果将黑猩猩与人类在成长过程中头骨的变化进行比较
And if you compare how much a chimp’s skull morphs as it matures,
你会发现我们的颅骨
you can see that our
形状变化更小
skull shape changes much less.
我们的幼态持续带给我们很多进化的优势
Our neoteny offered us lots of evolutionaryadvantages.
较少的体毛意味着我们在非洲的热浪中
Less body hair meant we could run farther
可以跑的更快 随着社会互动变得更重要
in that African heat, and our faces were more
我们的脸也变得更清晰明显 同样的
visible to each other as social interactionbecame more important. Also,
抑制我们自己的战斗
suppressing our own fight
或逃跑反应意味着我们可以与更大数量的同伴
or flight response meant we could cooperate and organize
合作并进行组织活动
in larger numbers.
最重要的是这些大脑需要许多
And most importantly, these big brains need a lot
空间和时间来发育开发 这就是为什么
of room and time to develop, which is
我们比其他哺乳动物依赖父母的时间更长
why we rely on our parents for much longer than most mammals.
这也许不是一个巧合——我们的社会变得越复杂
It might not be a coincidence that the more complex our society gets,
人类就需要越多的时间
the more time humans
来独立
need to become independent.
童年是实验和学习的阶段
Childhood is a time for experimentation and learning —
许多动物到它们成年时
most animals get locked into pretty
都被束缚在了十分死板的程式里
rigid programs by the time they’re adults.
通过将我们的童年延长到成年期
By extending our childhood into adulthood,
只要活着 我们就可以学习和改变
we can learn and change as long as we live.
也许这就是我们仍然爱卡通的原因
Maybe that’s why so many of us still lovecartoons.
因为我们也许会变老 但我们不会长大
Because we may get old, but we never growup.
这使我们成为了人类
That’s what makes us human.
保持好奇心
Stay curious.

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视频概述

为什么迪士尼的主角们身材比例越来越像小孩子呢?其实这是迪士尼的一个生物学陷阱!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

The END.

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1gzpEktyKo

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