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为什么蟑螂这么难杀?

Why are cockroaches so hard to kill? - Ameya Gondhalekar

In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, there’s a banishment spell that declares,
在埃及的亡灵书中 有一条驱逐咒语
“Be far from me, O vile cockroach.”
离我远点 可恶的蟑螂
More than 3,000 years later, we’re still trying to oust these insects.
3000多年后 我们仍在努力驱逐这些昆虫
But from poison traps to hastily brandished slippers,
但是 从毒药陷阱到匆忙挥舞的拖鞋
cockroaches seem to weather just about everything we throw at them.
蟑螂似乎能经受住我们扔向它们的所有东西
So what makes cockroaches so hard to kill?
是什么让蟑螂如此难以杀死呢
There are nearly 5,000 cockroach species.
有近5000种蟑螂
99% of them live in a range of habitats where they play important ecological roles
其中99%通过循环死去或腐烂的有机物质
by recycling dead or decaying organic matter
为其它动物提供营养
and nourishing other animals.
在所居住的一系列栖息地中发挥着重要生态作用
But a couple dozen species adapted to live in close association with humans.
但有几十种适应了和人类紧密联系的生活
German and American cockroaches are among the most common.
其中最常见的是德国和美国蟑螂
And they owe their resilience to a combination
它们这种适应能力归因于
of physical and chemical adaptations.
自身的物理和化学适应性的结合
When it comes to old-fashioned removal methods,
在用老式的灭除方法时
they’re troublingly tenacious.
它们顽强的令人困扰
An American cockroach’s sensory hairs or structures pick up subtle air currents
美国蟑螂的感觉毛发或结构能捕捉到微妙的气流
and rapidly send signals to its central nervous system.
并迅速向中枢神经系统发送信号
The roach can then turn and sprint away within a few milliseconds.
然后 蟑螂就能在几毫秒内转身冲刺离开
And it’s among the fastest invertebrates ever recorded,
它是有记录以来速度最快的无脊椎动物之一
reaching speeds of up to 50 body lengths per second.
速度能达到每秒50个身体长度
This would be the human equivalent of running more than 300 kilometers per hour.
相当于人类每小时跑300多公里
And finding a hiding place is no problem.
要找到一个藏身之处毫无困难
With its flattened, flexible body,
美国蟑螂身体扁平而灵活
an American cockroach can squeeze into spaces less than a quarter of its height.
可以挤进不到其高度四分之一的空间里
Even if we do land a hit, it can withstand compressive forces
即使我们真的打中了 它能将冲击力沿身体分散
of up to 900 times its own weight by distributing the impact along its body.
而承受高达其自身重量900倍的压缩力
And the cockroach’s toughness doesn’t end there.
蟑螂的顽强远不止于此
Cockroaches can eat a variety of organic matter,
蟑螂可以食用各种各样的有机质
including hair, dead skin, adhesives, and paper.
包括头发 死皮 粘合剂和纸张
This is made possible by an expansive set of digestive enzymes.
这是由一组广泛的消化酶来实现的
Cockroaches are able to thrive even in nutrient-poor environments.
蟑螂即使在营养不足的环境中也能茁壮成长
Roaches often eat decaying foods that are low in nitrogen—
蟑螂经常吃含氮量低的腐烂食物
an essential component of DNA and proteins.
氮是DNA和蛋白质的主要成分
But they survive by storing nitrogen-containing wastes in their bodies
它们通过在体内储存含氮废物
and having a resident group of bacteria recycle the nitrogen
以及一群常驻细菌将氮再循环
into useful molecules for them.
变成对它们有用的分子从而生存下来
Meanwhile, German cockroaches will eat their own poop, vomit,
同时 德国蟑螂能毫不犹豫地吃掉自己的排泄物 呕吐物
and dead or dying colony members without hesitation.
以及死去或濒死的群体成员
An American cockroach will frolic in sewers,
美国蟑螂在下水道中也能畅欢
consuming excrement and toting microbes like Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli.
吃着排泄物 搬运金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌等微生物
But they’ll rarely suffer any consequences.
但几乎不会受到任何影响
This is because they’re equipped with genes that provide immunity
这是因为它们带有的基因能提供免疫力
against numerous pathogens.
抵抗许多病原体
These genes are often duplicated many times over.
这些基因通常都能复制多次
So when infected, the cockroach’s immune system efficiently unleashes
因此 蟑螂在感染时 其免疫系统能高效地释放
many antimicrobial molecules.
许多抗菌分子
Cockroaches also have a slew of defenses against pesticides.
蟑螂对杀虫剂也有一系列的防御措施
When a non-resistant roach walks on a surface that’s been sprayed
例如 一个没有抗药性的蟑螂
with a pyrethroid insecticide, for example,
在喷洒过拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂的表面走过时
the results will likely be fatal.
结果很可能是致命的
Once absorbed, the chemical binds to sodium channel proteins,
该化学物质一旦被吸收 就会和钠通道蛋白结合
which help propagate nerve impulses.
钠通道蛋白有助于传播神经冲动
The pyrethroid keeps the sodium channels open,
而拟除虫菊酯能保持钠通道的开放
so the nerves fire repeatedly.
因此 神经会反复兴奋
And soon, the cockroach dies.
不久 蟑螂就死亡了
But if a resistant roach is exposed to pyrethroids, it’ll be just fine.
但要是一个有抗药性的蟑螂接触到拟除虫菊酯并不会出事
Genetic mutations have given them sodium channels
基因突变使它们的钠通道
that the pyrethroids can’t bind to.
不能与拟除虫菊酯相结合
The cockroach also produces more detoxification enzymes,
蟑螂还能产生更多的解毒酶
which render the pesticide harmless,
使杀虫剂变得无害
and the cockroach simply excretes it as a waste.
然后被蟑螂作为废物排除体外
Because German cockroaches reproduce especially quickly,
因为德国蟑螂的繁殖速度非常快
populations may evolve resistance to a new pesticide within months.
其种群在数月内就可能对新农药产生抗性
So far, they’re already resistant to 43 different chemicals.
截至目前 它们已经对43种不同化学物质产生了抗性
But contrary to popular belief,
但是 和大众看法相反
cockroaches would probably not survive a nuclear apocalypse.
蟑螂可能无法在核灾难中幸存下来
Compared with other insects,
和其它昆虫相比
cockroaches are only mildly tolerant to radiation.
蟑螂对辐射只有轻微的耐受性
They would die near the sites of nuclear explosions
在核爆炸地点附近它们会死亡
and would still be severely compromised miles away.
而且在数英里外仍会受到严重影响
Moreover, disasters that threaten humanity
此外 威胁到人类的灾难
also jeopardize the habitats and buffets we provide roaches.
也会危及我们为蟑螂提供的栖息地和自助餐
Perhaps the only way to beat them is through our mutual destruction.
或许打败它们的唯一方式就是通过相互毁灭了
Or maybe cockroaches would find even more surprising ways to thrive
也有可能蟑螂会找到更令人惊讶的成长之路
long after we’re gone.
在我们消失很久之后

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本视频主要介绍了蟑螂生存力顽强的原因,让我们一起了解一下吧!

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkdLg0Nq4SQ

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