未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么成年人学外语很困难

Why Are Adults Bad At New Languages?

Hola,soy David de MinuteEarth.
大家好 这里是soy David de的《分钟地球》
You’ve probably heard that an old dog can’t learn new tricks
你可能听说过“老狗学不了新把戏”这句谚语
and that’s mostly true.
这基本上是对的
While senior doggos can be better than puppies at solving some small puzzles
虽然老狗能比小狗更好地解决一些小谜题
It seems like there’s some barrier to them picking up totally new behaviors.
但是老狗学习一项全新的技能似乎总是很难
And the same is true for an old human – or an “adult” as I’m sometimes called.
年长的人 或者“成年人”也有同样的问题
While we’re better than little kids at learning to do specific tasks
我们比儿童更擅长学习执行特定任务
We’re often worse at mastering new complex skills
但我们却不擅长掌握一个新的复杂技能
including languages.
例如语言
In fact, compared to people who start learning a second language before age 10,
事实上 与10岁前开始学习外语的人相比
people who start after they hit double digits are way less likely to ever attain a native-like fluency.
10岁后开始的人更难达到母语使用者的流利度
You might think that’s because there’s something about
也许你认为这是因为
young brains as opposed to old brains
大脑发育程度不同
that makes them more amenable to learning complicated new things.
才使得儿童能够更好地学习复杂的新事物
But the real culprits may be two sociological barriers that come with adulting.
但是真正的问题可能在于成年人的两大社会学障碍
The first is that adults usually don’t invest as much in learning a new language as kids do.
第一 成年人学习语言的投入度不如儿童
When a family immigrates to a country with a new language
当一个家庭移民到新的语言环境
the kids will almost certainly need to use that language
孩子们往往需要用新语言
to learn stuff at school, to make friends
在校学习 交友
and to keep up with pop culture.
以及赶时髦
The parents, though, won’t necessarily have to use the new language at their jobs
而父母不一定需要在工作中使用新语言
they’ll often already have friends who speak their native language, and, well
他们通常已经有说着相同语言的朋友
adults usually care more about the old pop culture of their youth.
并且他们对自己年轻时代的潮流更感兴趣
And – importantly – when an adult wants to take a break from using a new language
更重要的是 当一个成年人不想说新语言的时候
they usually can.
他们可以不说
But kids often have to keep trying even when they don’t want to,
但是儿童即使不想 也不得不一直使用新语言
which means they do it more, which actually helps them gain fluency quicker.
这意味着其实他们练习得越多 越快达到流利程度
The other barrier that adults have to overcome
另外一个成年人必须克服的障碍是
is that while adults are good at following directions
虽然成年人更擅长遵循既定的规则
which can often help us beat kids at specific tasks
这能让他们比孩子更快地处理特定任务
ike applying a new verb tense
例如适应新的语法时态
we tend to see a new language as a huge set of rules to be followed.
但我们往往把一门新语言视作一系列要遵守的规则
And we’re so worried that we’ll “do mistakes” and “talks wrongly”
并且我们太担心说错做错
that we end up not using the new language very much
而减少对新语言的使用
while kids who are way less risk averse in general use it a lot more.
而孩子却不太在意犯错 因此讲得更多
And it turns out that the risky approach simply letting loose
结果就是这个冒险的方法能够让他们放松
and trying to communicate as often as possible in as many situations as possible mistakes and all.
并且在不同情景下尽量的多交流 多犯错误
seems to be the very best way to learn a new language.
这似乎才是学语言的最佳方法
There are a few other reasons why an adult might have trouble learning a new language,
还有其他原因使成年人学习新语言有困难
but if they find reasons to be invested in the new language,
但如果他们找到投入学习的理由
use effective strategies and forgo worrying about mistakes
掌握高效的方法并且不害怕犯错
they can knock down these two big barriers and become bilingual.
他们可以打破语言学习的障碍而成为双语者
In fact, using these strategies,
事实上 用这样的方法
some adults have learned to fluently speak several extra languages
一些成年人已经学会流利地讲多种语言
One of those hyperlinguists – Kató Lomb
一位多语言使用者 Kató Lomb
started learning new languages after age 10
在10岁以后开始学习新语言
and kept learning more and more throughout her life – including a final language when
并且她持续学习很多语言
she was well into her 80s.
直到80岁她仍在学习
How’s that for breaking down barriers?
打破障碍的感觉怎么样?
This video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota, where students, faculty and
本视频由明尼苏达大学赞助
staff across all fields of study are working to solve the Grand Challenges facing society.
该校师生致力于解决面对社会的巨大挑战
One of these challenges is enhancing individual and community capacity for a changing world,
其中之一就是提高个人和团体应对社会变化的能力
which includes figuring out how we can all communicate better with one another.
包括如何与他人更好地沟通
Professor Kate Paesani and her team at the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition
语言获得研究中心的Kate Paesani教授团队
are studying multilingualism and multiculturalism to improve foreign language teaching and learning,
正在研究多语言和多元文化以促进外语教学
and Professor Martha Bigelow of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction studies multilingual
课程指导中心的Martha Bigelow教授
educational policy, with a focus on immigrant and refugee youth.
研究多语言教育政策并关注青年移民和难民
Thanks University of Minnesota!
感谢明尼苏达大学!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

只要克服两个关键问题,成年人也可以流利地讲外语

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

yxyxyxy

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTgbDXYG_OY

相关推荐