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为什么要向蓄水池中投放9600万个黑球? – 译学馆
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为什么要向蓄水池中投放9600万个黑球?

Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?

These are shade balls.
这些东西是遮阳球
They’re being dumped into this water reservoir in Los Angeles.
它们被倒进洛杉矶的这个蓄水池里
And contrary to what you may have heard,
或许和你之前听说过的消息不同
their main purpose
放球的主要目的
is not to reduce evaporation.
不是为了杜绝蓄水池中水的蒸发
So, what are they really for?
那么 到底为什么投放遮阳球呢?
To find out
为了寻找答案
I am visiting the largest collection of these balls anywhere on Earth
我来到了世界上拥有最多遮阳球的地方:
at L.A. reservoir.
洛杉矶的蓄水池
96 million shade balls?!
这里有9600万个遮阳球?!
That’s correct.
没错
96 million.
9600万个啊
It’s very rare for you
不管是什么东西
to see 96 million of anything.
9600万这数量都很少见
This is your life vest which you are required to wear.
这是你的救生衣 你必须穿上它
Alright.
好的
Throw your leg over and climb on in anyway you can.
用腿跨过栏杆 然后尽可能爬上去
There you go.
好了
Thank you.
非常感谢
Looking at this,
看到这些球的时候
I had so many questions.
我产生了许多疑问
Like, why are they black?
比如 球为什么是黑色的?
Are they safe to have in drinking water?
把球放到饮用水里安全吗?
How much do they cost?
这些球要花多少钱?
Do they actually reduce evaporation?
这些球真的能减少蒸发吗?
And what is their real purpose?
把球放在这里的真正目的是什么?
James Tilch 洛杉矶水电局 维护与建设人员
Is it hard to drive in shade balls?
在遮阳球里开船难不难?
It is very hard.
很难的
Why is that?
为什么?
Uh…
这个嘛……
These are actually partially filled with water.
球里其实装了一部分水
And the reason they’re filled with water is that
之所以要在球里装水
in L.A reservoir we have some really high winds.
其实是因为洛杉矶蓄水池这里风很大
And so, you know, if we didn’t put water in these things,
所以 如果球里没有水的话
there’d be balls bouncing on the 5 Freeway people drive down.
它们就会被吹到5号高速公路上
They’d be all over the place.
球会飞得到处都是
So these keep the balls in the reservoir
在球里加水 就能让它们留在蓄水池里
and if they do start to roll, they kinda wobble
就算大风让球滚起来 它们也只会在水中晃动
because of water makes them uneven.
因为水的重力无法使球保持平衡
But that makes them significantly more difficult to push out of the way,
但这样也会让球变得很难被推开
especially when they form close-packed crystal like structures.
尤其是当球排布成这种紧密的晶体结构时
Behind the boat,
在船驶过的路径里
the balls quickly come together in our wake,
球又迅速聚集成了一片
and some close to the motor are pulled along with the boat.
一些靠近马达的球受到吸引 随着船前进
Wow!
哇!
Did you… what did you think the first time
他们起初建议这样做时
they suggested doing this or when they first came in?
或是拉来第一批球时 你怎么想的?
Yeah, it was a little out there.
有点难以接受
Did you think they were nuts?
你觉得这个举动很疯狂吗?
No, not nuts.
还不至于疯狂啦
Well, it just… it like, it looks absurd.
就是……看上去有点不正常
It’s like we are in the world’s biggest ball pit.
好像我们正在世界上最大的球坑里一样
Right, yeah, that’s what it looks like.
是啊 的确很像
Yeah, you would, you can’t tell
站在这里时
by standing here that we’re actually floating
你意识不到我们其实是漂浮在水面上的
over I think it’s probably 40 50 feet right here, 40 50 feet deep below us.
我觉得脚下应该有四五十英尺深的水吧
And you can’t even see any water.
你却完全看不到有水存在
You’d think it was a joke, right?
你肯定会觉得是在开玩笑 对吧?
If you didn’t know,
如果你不了解实情的话
you would be like, no you’re not,
你一定会说 这不可能
that’s a green screen or something, alright?
这是绿幕之类的东西吧?
Yeah, it’s fake.
一定是假的
So like when I switch on my tap at home,
我家水龙头流出来的水
is the water coming from here?
都是从这来的吗?
Yes.
是的
– Sometimes, or always? – Most of the time.
– 偶尔是 还是大部分时间都是? – 大多数时候都是来自这里
– Most of the time? – Yes.
– 大部分时间? – 没错
Most of the time the water is coming from here.
大多数时候都是来自这里的水
Absolutely nuts!
真是太疯狂了!
So why is LA reservoir covered in shade balls?
那么 洛杉矶蓄水池为什么要用遮阳球盖起来呢?
Well the problem all started with Bromide.
所有问题起初都是由溴离子引发的
Bromide is a naturally occurring substance associated with salt water.
溴离子是盐水中天然存在的一种成分
And so normally places like the California aqueduct that comes down from the Delta
因此 通常像加州渡槽这种三角洲流下来的水
you get some salt water intrusions
这种有盐水汇入的源水
usually has some bromide in the water.
里面通常就会带有溴离子
Bromide is harmless
溴离子是无害的
and it’s almost impossible to remove.
而且无法从水中去除
And but when you disinfect the water with ozone,
但是 当使用臭氧作为水的消毒剂时
that bromide becomes bromate.
溴离子会变成溴酸盐
And bromate is carcinogenic.
而溴酸盐是致癌物
And so around year 2,000
所以 2000年左右
they wrote regulations regulating bromate.
当局制定了控制溴酸盐浓度的法规
And the regulations basically said
法规的规定基本是这样
if you have a treatment plant that uses ozone,
如果你的水处理厂使用臭氧消毒工艺
then you have to watch your bromate formation,
则应注意臭氧的投加量
be careful not to form too much.
以避免产生过多的溴酸盐
So the only place we ever measured bromate was at a filter plant,
我们只在过滤装置处检测一次溴酸盐浓度
and the results were always within the 10 μg/L limit set by regulators.
检测结果一直是小于规定值的10μg/L
So they were confused
所以当接到来自一家
when they got a call from one of their customers,
洛杉矶饮料公司的用户的来电时
a beverage company in L.A..
他们非常困惑
They said,
用户在电话中说
“We have some really high levels of bromate showing up.
“我们测到了很高浓度的溴酸盐
Are you aware of this?”
你们知道这个情况吗?”
And we said, “Well, we don’t show anything.”
我们回答说“我们这里的指标是合格的”
But between the filtration plant and the customer was the reservoir.
但是 在过滤装置和用户之间会经过蓄水池
So they did some tests.
于是 饮水厂做了一系列测试
Almost immediatly upon coming into this open reservoir,
在进入这个露天蓄水池后
the bromate levels jumped.
溴酸盐含量立刻飙升
It turned out that bromide with chlorine which was supposed to be safe
原来 溴离子和氯这对原本安全的组合
in bright sunlight form bromate even more than ozone.
在强烈日光照射下形成的溴酸盐含量远高于臭氧反应
And so we made this unfortunate scientific discovery
我们发现了这个不理想的科研结果
that actually was not part of any regulatory scheme.
而事实上 这方面没有受到任何监管
And so, here we are at the reservoir.
所以 我们再来看看蓄水池
We have water source that’s got bromide in it. Harmless.
水源中存在溴离子 它是无毒的
We have chlorine, we have to have disinfected water.
我们添加了氯 这是消毒工艺必须添加的
And we have sunlight because it is open.
因为蓄水池是露天的 所以有日光
The only choice we have is to remove sunlight.
唯一的选择只能是避免光照
So we looked at all sorts of things.
因此 我们考察了一系列物品
We looked at floating tarps across the water,
比如让防水布漂浮在水面上
and normally put a floating cover on the water,
将物品覆盖在水面上是通常的做法
but that’s a multi-year project.
但这是个耗时数年的项目
And so we said, well,
于是我们想
can’t we manufacture this kind of trampoline with poly,
能不能用聚氯乙烯管这样的聚酯纤维
like PVC pipe.
做个蹦床那样的东西
And we said, well, they’re just gonna become bird perches,
但我们想到 这么做会吸引鸟在这里栖息
it’ll have a big water quality problem.
水质就会受到很大影响
And so, then we knew we had high-density polyethylene pipe,
然后我们又了解到
which is used in the water industry.
有种用于水工业的高密度聚乙烯管
And we know that it floats.
我们也知道它能浮在水上
We at one point thought about,
所以我们就想到
can we get to float a pile of pipe across the surface.
能不能让水面上漂浮着很多管子
Well, that’s hard to do and very expensive,
不过这么做有些难度
because it’s a lot of material.
而且因为需要很多材料 所以成本很高
So maybe we can take some pipe and run it into chipper.
所以我们又想到 不然用粉碎机把管子打碎
We can make it a debris field across the surface,
让漂浮的碎片布满整个水面
like the back corner of a lake somewhere.
就像一些湖泊的角落一样
But anyhow all this mushy warm water with plastic floating on the top
可是 表面漂浮着塑料碎片的温暖的水
that sounds like a petri dish.
听起来就像是培养皿
And so lo and behold
意想不到的是
Dr Brian White did some research
Brian White博士做了一些研究
and he found the shade ball.
最终找到了遮阳球
Except they weren’t called “shade balls” at the time.
不过那时 它们还不叫“遮阳球”
This product existed
这种产品之前就存在
and they were called “bird balls”.
不过它们被称作“鸟球”
And they will use it on ponds that had mine tailings
倾倒矿渣的池塘会用到这些球
where they didn’t want waterfowl to go in and get poisoned.
目的是避免水鸟进入池塘 使自己中毒
And also around airports where there were ponds
机场周边的池塘也会用到这些球
and they wanted to keep the waterfowl off
以避免水鸟停留在这些池塘中
so that they didn’t take off and get into the jet engines.
这样水鸟就不容易从这起飞 然后卷进飞机引擎里
You know they’d actually done wind tunnel testing,
研发人员还真的做过风洞实验
and we had… we blew you know 50 or 60 mile hour wind’s across,
我们大概在五六十英里每小时的风速下进行了测试
see how they’d behave.
想看看这些球会怎么样
But they are really made to
不过这些球原本的功能是
deter birds or wild life from sitting on the water.
防止鸟类或其他生物落在水面上
Did there used to be birds landing here more?
这地方以前有很多鸟吗?
– I feel like… – Absolutely!
– 我感觉…… – 绝对有很多的
Yeah?
真的吗?
Yeah, once we deployed these balls, all the birds were gone.
是的 放进这些球后 所有鸟都不见了
They used to just hang out, right?
这原来经常有鸟徘徊 对吧?
Loiter at the curbs.
在蓄水池边游荡
– Yeah they’d be all over the top of the dam. – You see bird droppings everywhere.
– 没错 鸟原来都在那边 或是水坝上 – 到处都能看见鸟粪
They’d be down at the outlet tower.
它们会落在出水口处的塔上
They’d be everywhere,
原本到处都能看见鸟的
but we don’t get them anymore like we use to.
不过现在看不到了
But before being added to the reservior,
在往蓄水池投放遮阳球前
the shade balls had to be tested.
要先对它们进行测试
Would they actually reduce the formation of bromate?
遮阳球真的能减少溴酸盐的生成量吗?
And we bought three kiddie pools,
我们买了三个儿童泳池
three little inflatable kiddie pools.
就是给小孩玩的充气泳池
And we filled them all with the reservoir water.
给泳池里加满了蓄水池的水
One was in the sunlight,
一个放在日光下
one we put a tarp on,
一个盖了防水布
one we put shade balls on.
还有一个放了遮阳球
And amazingly the shade balls knocked out the problem immediately.
令人惊奇的是 遮阳球立刻解决了问题
So the reason shade balls are black
之所以把遮阳球做成黑色
is to block all light from reaching the water
是为了阻止日光射入水中
and triggering the bromate reaction.
导致溴酸盐的生成
The black pigment is also safe for contact with drinking water,
球中的黑色染料接触饮用水是安全的
and it’s stable even exposed to the elements for years.
即便暴露在数年恶劣的天气下 染料依然很稳定
They’re black for a reason, so you know,
把它们做成黑色是有原因的
they are made out of high-density polyethylene,
它们是由高密度聚乙烯制成的
it’s the same material that like a gallon milk jug is made out of.
和一加仑装牛奶桶用的是同样的材料
It’s a food-grade plastic
所以它是食品级塑料
and they would be clear like milk carton,
它们可以做成牛奶桶那样透明的
except that they wouldn’t last in the sun.
但这样在日光照射下坚持不了多久
And so they have a material called “carbon black” in there,
所以里面加了一种名为“炭黑”的材料
and that’s what makes the plastic last for at least 10 years out in this sun.
这样 这些材料至少能在日光下坚持十年
We did test to see
我们还做了其他实验
if there is any other colour we could use.
看看是否有别的颜色可以使用
So we actually had the company make three different shades of blue.
我们让制造商制作了三种不同深度的蓝色
But the dyes were so unstable
但是那些染料都不够稳定
they said, we can’t guarantee it’s gonna last more than a year.
制造商无法保证使用时间能超过一年
And so it’s that carbon black that is the magic powder in this,
所以现在这个球的颜色是用炭黑实现的
that really makes this product last in the sunlight.
炭黑让这个球可以抵御阳光的照射
One of the concerns that people raise with me when we first put these on
最初我们放入球时 人们很关心一个问题
was that are they gonna get hot and then leach material out.
它们会不会在受热后向水中释放任何物质
And they don’t. They’re totally inert.
不会的 它们完全是惰性的物质
I mean theoretically, you can cut off a piece of ball, and you can chew it.
理论上 你可以切下一片 然后咀嚼它
No harm comes to you, this is totally food-grade.
这是食品级的 不会对人体造成伤害
Nothing wrong with it whatsoever.
完全不会有任何问题
What’s it like driving through these things?
在这些东西里航行是什么感觉?
It’s difficult.
很难开
As you can see,
你也看得到
we’ve been sitting here for a while, how long?
我们在这里待了……不知多久了
Quite a while.
有一会了吧
And there is a breeze, and we haven’t moved.
虽说有些微风 可我们却没有漂走
I mean anybody that knows that’s been on a boat in a lake,
在湖上坐过船的人都知道
if there is a slight breeze and you are on a boat, you’re drifting, right?
如果有微风 船会漂动的 对吧?
Not here. This thing, they are just… stable. They don’t move.
在这里不会发生 船很稳定 不会动
It’s interesting when you try to pilot the boat through these things.
开着船在球中穿行而过很有趣
It’s just difficult.
不过挺难的
– It’s like driving through peanut butter or something? – Something, I guess, yeah.
– 有点像在花生酱里开船吧? – 我猜是有点像吧
Not that I’ve ever done that.
我从来没试过
Blocking sunlight from the reservoir also provided additional benefits.
为蓄水池遮住阳光还带来了其它好处
You know, one of the reasons that we put so much chlorine in
我们投加很多氯的一个原因是
was to control the algae growth.
为了抑制藻类生长
But sometimes you still couldn’t control it.
但有时还是无法抑制它们的生长
There were times years ago in the summer,
几年前的夏天
where if we had algae outbreak,
有那么几次藻类爆发
you might actually, if you filled the bath up,
有可能你泡澡时给浴缸加满水
you might have a slight tinge drink.
就能看到水泛着一点点绿色
It may be healthy to drink,
这水喝起来或许是“安全”的
but it might have a slight tinge green from the algae.
但因为里面有藻 所以泛着点绿色
You can see a bit of the algae.
你能看到一些藻
Yeah, and just discolouring the water.
没错 这会让水的颜色发生变化
That no longer occurs.
不过现在不会出现这个问题了
So with the sunlight gone, the algae problem is gone.
没有日光 藻就不会生长了
We put in basically no chlorine.
我们现在几乎不加氯了
We’ve only had a few times since the shade balls put on in LA reservoir,
自从放入遮阳球后 只加了几次氯
they’ve added any chlorine at all.
甚至根本不加氯了
And we used to do half of the chlorine in the whole water system within that reservoir,
过去 有一半的氯要加到蓄水池里
just to control the algae growth.
目的就是为了抑制藻类生长
But the big concern I had was evaporation.
但我主要还是关心蒸发的问题
When I first heard about these black plastic balls reducing evaporation,
我第一次听说这些黑色塑料球能减少蒸发时
it didn’t seem to make any sense.
觉得道理上说不通
I mean wouldn’t they absorb more enery and so heat up the water,
黑球难道不会因为吸收更多热量 使水变热
leading to faster evaporation.
导致蒸发速度加快吗?
It turns out the answer is no,
结果证明答案并非如此
for a number of reasons.
有以下这些原因
In an open reservoir, there is more exposed surface area
露天蓄水池的水面暴露的面积更大
where water molecules can escape into the air.
水分子会逸散到空气中
Plus, there is greater air flow over the water surface
加之水表面的风速更快
continually removing the layer of moist air
不断将表面的潮湿空气吹走
and replacing it with dryer air,
换成干燥的空气
increasing evaporation.
加速了蒸发过程
Now, the shade balls do absorb more energy
遮阳球的确会吸收更多能量
and get hotter on top,
使球的顶部更热
but the bottom of the balls stays cool.
但球的底部还是保持凉爽的
Plus the balls contain mostly air,
而且 球里大部分是空气
which is a good thermal insulator,
它是极好的隔热体
and so not much of the heat is transferred through the water.
所有没有向水传递很多热量
It’s almost like double pane window.
类似于双层玻璃窗
You know, you get that air gap in there.
玻璃中间有层空气
And the air acts as an insulator,
空气发挥了隔热体的作用
and so the sun never hits the water.
日光永远不会直接去加热水
Matter of fact, we’ve actually done some measurements,
我们做过一些测试
and is actually cooler around the shade balls,
尽管球是黑色的
even though it is black
相比直接受日光照射的水面
than it is without the balls just with the sun itself.
球周围的水温其实更低
So, the balls actually have a slight cooling effect.
所以 其实球有一点降温的效果
So for all of these reasons,
基于以上这些原因
shade balls reduce evaporation by 80 to 90 percent.
遮阳球使蒸发量减少了80%-90%
That’s pretty significant for a dry climate like Los Angeles.
对于洛杉矶这样干燥的气候来说很有意义了
How much do they cost?
它们要花多少钱?
These run about around three for a dollar.
一美元大概能买3个
I think we paid 33, 34 cents a piece, something in that range.
一个球大概33 34美分吧
So… and they actually have a salvage value,
其实它们还有残值的
not that much,
虽然不多
but if we go to remove them,
但如果回收它们
they are recyclable material.
这些材料是可以再利用的
So… but we figure that over the life of the balls
我们算了一下 在球的使用周期内
between the savings and chlorination, is the chemical savings
省下的氯这些化学试剂的成本
and savings in evaporation,
和蒸发的水的价值
probably at least half of the cost of the balls would be paid for.
至少够买这些球数量的一半
And so, I mean of course the water quality benefit is immeasurable,
当然 对于水质的提升是无法估价的
but even the balls themselves
不过即使球只实现自身功能
would save money doing what they do.
我们也能省钱
Do you ever bring people out here for tours? or…
你有带人参观过这里吗?还是……
You’re the first one.
你是第一个
Why am I the first one to get to go on a tour here?
为什么我是第一个来这里参观的人啊?
To get this level of detailed tour, yes.
没错 你是第一个享受到详细解说的游客
This is so cool!
太棒了!
I’ve heard something about hexagonal balls.
我曾听说过六边形的球
Have you ever thought about the hexagonal balls?
你考虑过使用六边形的球吗?
Oh my Gosh, so we had these shade balls of course,
天啊 当然听说过了 我们用上遮阳球后
everyone in the world came up with another product.
全世界的人都发明出了其他产品
I have once I called “ravioli”, it’s a small hex.
我见过“意大利饺子”形的 就是小六边形
We had large hex, we had all sorts of pieces,
还有大六边形的 我们还有各种形状的
and people say would they lock together.
人们说它们连接性更好
But the problem is, they need to not stack up,
但问题是 它们不可以彼此重叠
and they need to not sit on the bank of the reservoir,
它们也不可以卡在蓄水池岸边
the reservoir’s gonna go up and down.
蓄水池中的水位会变动
And so it’s really the shape of the ball
所以 其实只有球形
that makes them not perch on the side.
能保证它们不会被留在岸边
Because we need to make sure that these… when the water goes up and down
我们要确保 在水位发生变化时
that they spread up or they spread out completely to cover the water as best as possible.
遮阳球能分散开 尽可能完全覆盖住水面
I mean I just can’t get over what I am seeing.
我简直不敢相信自己的眼睛
It’s just so nuts.
真是太疯狂了
I’m waiting for you to say
我一直等着你说
it looks like a pool of boba.
“它们看起来就像一池子珍珠”
I feel like that’s the line that’ll go in.
我一定会把这句话剪进视频的
But you got it, that is…
你赢了
That’s awesome.
真棒!
– Do you like boba? – I love boba.
– 你喜欢珍珠奶茶吗? – 超喜欢的
I might get some after this.
一会回去就买

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译制信息
视频概述

9600万个遮阳球放在一起是什么样子的?为什么要往蓄水池里放这么多遮阳球?这些遮阳球安全吗?买这么多球要花多少钱?来视频寻找答案吧!

听录译者

Cathy

翻译译者

短尾龙

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxPdPpi5W4o

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