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机票价格为什么降低了? – 译学馆
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机票价格为什么降低了?

Why Air Travel Is So Cheap

Sixty years ago,
六十年前
air travel was far too expensive for the masses.
航空旅行对老百姓来说太贵了
Book a flight between New York and London on Pan Am in 1960,
1960年 在泛美航空订一张从纽约到伦敦的机票
and you’d be paying somewhere around $300,
花费约为300美元
or about $2,600, adjusted for inflation.
或者考虑通胀因素 约2600美元
But in 2019, you can catch the same flight
但在2019年乘坐同样的航班
for almost a tenth of the price.
花费几乎是当时票价的十分之一
It looks like flying has never been cheaper,
机票似乎从来没有这么便宜过
but is that the real story?
但事实真是这样吗?
And how did we get here?
机票价格是如何演变的?
The first scheduled commercial flight took place in 1914.
1914年 商业航班首次出现
It had one passenger
Tonny Jannus是机长唯一的乘客
and was piloted by this guy, Tony Jannus.
同时也是该航班的飞行员
The flight was from St. Petersburg to Tampa.
飞机从圣彼得堡飞到了坦帕市
What would have been a 12-hour train ride
把12小时的火车旅行变为23分钟的飞行
became a quick 23-minute trip.
我们要做些什么呢
The flight proved that there was demand
此次飞行证明 要使飞机成为交通工具
for scheduled aviation as transportation.
我们必须要制定航班计划
Jannus is largely credited with laying the groundwork
Jannus为现代航空业基础的奠定
for the modern aviation business,
做出了巨大贡献
which has grown into a multibillion-dollar industry.
航空业现已发展为价值数十亿美元的产业
In 2018, there were an estimated
据估算 在2018年
45 million flights worldwide,
全球航班数量达4500万
and the average fare for a domestic flight in the US
美国国内航班的均价
was $350.
为350美元
Now, $350 is hardly considered cheap,
如今 350美元并不便宜
but take a look at this graph.
来看看这张图表
Average ticket prices have been steadily decreasing
1980年以来 机票的平均价格
since 1980.
稳步下降
In fact, tickets are close to their lowest prices ever.
事实上 机票价格接近历史最低
But from 1950 to 1980, flying was different.
1950到1980年间情况有所不同
Before 1978, fares and routes in the US
1978年以前 美国的机票价格和航线
were closely regulated by the federal government,
几乎都由联邦政府制定
and many routes had fixed minimum prices.
许多航线都有固定的最低价格
Scott Mayerowitz: What ended up happening is
最终的结果是
you got into a highly regulated industry
政府高度管控航空业
where the federal government
在这个行业里
set the various routes that you could fly,
联邦政府制定不同的飞行航线
set how much prices could be,
同时制定机票的价格
and the airlines were raking in the dollars.
航空公司赚得盆满钵满
Narrator: The story across Europe was slightly different,
欧洲的航空业稍有不同
as most airlines were state-controlled
由于多数航空公司由政府经营
and air travel was treated as a public service.
航空被视为一项公共服务
But in 1978, everything changed.
但在1978年 情况变了
Then President Jimmy Carter
美国总统吉米·卡特
signed the Airline Deregulation Act,
签署了《航空管制法案》
and the aviation industry was open for business.
从此民航业向企业开放
Free from government regulation,
政府不再控制航企
airlines now had one goal: to sell tickets.
航空公司只有一个目标 销售机票
Mayerowitz: What really happened after deregulation
在撤销管制之后
was just this massive fight.
航班数量剧增
Airlines were doing everything to get market share
航空公司甚至不考虑盈利状况
and not really looking at profitability.
以竭尽全力争取市场份额
The theory was, the more people we can get onto a plane,
理论上来说 飞机上的乘客越多
the more we can dominate the market, the more we’re winning.
我们越能主宰市场 占领的市场份额越多
But they didn’t really look at it as a business
而民航业终究是需要盈利的行业
where you needed, at the end of the day, to make a profit.
他们并没有真正意识到这一点
And as soon as you had one little economic hiccup,
一旦资金出现问题
a bit of a recession or a spike in oil prices,
或是经济稍有衰退 又或者油价猛涨
that’s when airlines really start to fail.
民航业将遭受打击
Narrator: At the same time,
与此同时
aircraft technology was also advancing,
航空技术不断进步
which made the planes more efficient.
提高了飞机的效率
New wing technology was implemented, such as winglets,
人们采用新的机翼技术 比如小翼技术
which made planes more aerodynamic and reduced flight times.
它使飞机的阻力减小从而减少飞行时间
Computer systems began to replace older cockpit technology,
计算机系统开始替代老式的驾驶舱技术
making the planes less reliant on pilots.
飞机对飞行员的依赖减少
Shortly after planes got computers, so did people,
飞机装上了计算机 电脑也开始普及
and pricing began to get even more competitive.
随后价格竞争变得异常激烈
Websites like Expedia and Priceline,
Expedia和Priceline等网站
launched in the late ’90s,
于90年代末上市
began to catalog all of the lowest prices.
这些网站列出了所有航班的最低价格
Budget-airline models were able to thrive because of this,
消费者常常在网站上购买低价票
as consumers would regularly click the cheapest prices.
廉价航空模式因此迅速发展起来
For many airlines, this competition was unsustainable.
对许多航空公司来说 低价竞争无法持续
Over the years, a lot of companies folded,
多年后 很多航企倒闭
merged, or absorbed one another.
与其他公司合并或是被吞并
And today, the four largest US airlines
现在美国最大的四家航空公司
control 80% of the market.
占据了80%的市场
One of these four, Southwest, has a fleet of 753 planes,
其中 美国西南航空公司拥有753架飞机
each of which has an average of six flights per day.
每架飞机平均每天执飞6个航班
That’s about 4,000 flights a day.
一天总共有约4000个航班
And while that may sound like a lot,
虽然看上去航班很多
that frequency is decreasing across America.
在全美 每天的航班总量却在下降
This is because something called load factor is increasing.
这是因为满载率不断增加
Mayerowitz: One of the key metrics for the airlines
满载率是航空公司的重要指标之一
is called load factor, and this is basically your occupancy.
简单地说 它就是上座率
How many seats do you have available
你还有多少空座
and what percentage of those are being sold
乘客已购买的座位数
or occupied by passengers.
占总座位数的比例是多少
Narrator: Basically, that means aircraft are flying
总得来说 满载意味着飞机满座
at full capacity, or close to it, more often.
或者更多情况下接近于满座
And this is good for airlines. And for flyers, sort of.
这对航空公司有利 对乘客来说也有好处
Airlines are able to keep fares low
因为大多数座位都销售出去了
because most of the seats have been sold.
航空公司就能保持较低的票价
Which isn’t always great for passengers.
但这并不总是有利于乘客
Ever been the last one on the plane
你曾经有没有最后登机
and there’s no more overhead luggage space?
却发现行李架满了?
Or had no room for your legs
或者 因为飞机的座位间距太小
because the seats are so close together?
导致双腿无法伸展?
There are tons of budget airlines around the world.
全球的廉价航空公司数不胜数
Some of the more notable ones are Ryanair,
知名的有瑞安航空
Norwegian, Spirit, and Frontier.
挪威航空 精神航空 以及边疆航空
These companies usually charge extra
这些公司会对常规服务
for traditionally included amenities,
收取额外的费用
like reserving your seat,
比如预定座位
while cutting costs wherever they can.
同时 他们会尽可能降低成本
Mayerowitz: This issue of cramming
全球的航空公司
more passengers onto planes
都在想办法
is happening all across the world.
让飞机搭载更多的乘客
You look at a discount carrier like Ryanair,
就拿廉价航空公司瑞安航空来说
based in Ireland but flies all over Europe.
它的基地在爱尔兰 航线却遍布欧洲
They’re looking at putting 200 people on a Boeing 737.
他们打算让波音737搭载200名乘客
This is a plane that some airlines
而其他航空公司的该机型
are still flying with 150, 160 passengers.
目前的载客数仍为150到160
That’s really, really crowded.
那真的太拥挤了
But it maximizes profit.
但它实现了利益最大化
And when you fly in an airline like Ryanair,
当你搭乘瑞安航空的飞机时
you know exactly what you’re getting.
你完全清楚你将获得什么样的服务
Narrator: So, take that $320 flight on Norwegian
你花了320美元乘坐挪威航空
from New York to London.
从纽约到伦敦的航班
Need anything other than one small piece of hand luggage?
除了一个小手提箱 还要携带其他行李吗?
The fare jumps to $490.
如果有 费用将增至490美元
Want a refundable ticket and two checked bags?
需要一张可退换的票并托运两件行李吗?
Suddenly you’re at $1,379.
那你的费用将猛增到1379美元
That’s about $100 more
除去物价上涨因素
than the inflation-adjusted 1977 price,
这比1977年的票价还多出约100美元
which came with all those extras included as standard
当时的价格还包含了所有额外费用
and more legroom, too.
如标准服务和宽敞座位
And non-budget airlines have seen the potential profit
非廉价航空在这种廉价航空模式中
in this budget model.
发现了潜在利润
More and more airlines are beginning to charge
越来越多的航空公司开始在票价之外
hidden fees on top of the ticket price,
向乘客收取隐藏费用
from checking baggage to just choosing your seat.
从行李托运到选座 乘客都要付费
Find the right deals, though,
然而 选择合适的航空公司
and flying can be cheaper than ever,
乘飞机比以往任何时候都便宜
but that original price you saw advertised
不过 你在广告上看到的原价
may be misleading,
常常误导人
and the experience that you get these days
你近段时间的乘机体验
might not be the most pleasant,
可能不是最愉快的
as manufacturers continue to cut costs.
这是由于各航企不断地降低成本
But the world of bargain-budget fares may not last.
但是 低价机票可能不会持续太久
Aviation emissions are predicted to possibly triple by 2050,
到2050年 航空排放量预计将增加两倍
and many countries have begun implementing
许多国家已经开始对航企
stricter environmental taxes for flights.
实施更严格的环境税收政策
Mayerowitz: Overall, there’s little that the industry
总的来说 如今的航空业
can squeeze out of airfare right now.
很难通过机票来增加收益
They’re gonna get much more efficient with aircraft,
他们必须使飞机更加高效
and that’s gonna mean less fuel burning.
也就是说 让飞机更加节能
But the cost of labor is probably not gonna go down.
但劳动力成本不太可能降低
You still need good, quality people
航空业仍然需要
to fly an airplane and be your flight attendants
优秀的飞行员和空乘人员
and be there for your safety.
以保障飞机和乘客的安全

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视频概述

机票价格降低的原因

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翻译译者

Spencer

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审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3eByvmxllw

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