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为什么人会变老?我们该停止这一过程吗?

Why Age? Should We End Aging Forever?

假设现在你有能力选择
If you had to choose right now,
你想活到多大岁数?
how long would you want to live?
80岁?
80 years?
90岁?
90?
120岁?
120?
还是更长?
Longer?
等你到那个年龄的时候 你会改变现在的想法么?
And do you think you’ll change your mind once you reach that age?
5万年前 大多数人年纪轻轻就过世了
Fifty thousand years ago most humans died very young.
我们知道如何利用周围的资源医疗自己后
As we learned how to use the resources around us to treat ourselves,
过早离世的情况就有所减少
this got better and better.
如今 人的寿命比以前更长
Today, humans are living longer and
身体要更健康
healthier lives than ever before.
但是这也会产生一个无法预料的结果
But this has an unforeseen consequence.
我们遭受病痛的时间会更久 接受的医疗照顾要更多
We spend an ever-increasing part of our lives being sick and in need of care.
大多数人最终都死在医院的病榻上
Most of us will die in a hospital bed,
这件事本身就让人很压抑
which is depressing enough by itself.
尤其是我们还得亲眼见证我们爱的人同样如此
But we also have to witness the same happening to our loved ones.
除非 我们可以永远阻止这一切的发生
Except, maybe we can stop this forever.
治疗疾病最有效的方法就是预防
The most effective way to treat a disease is to prevent it.
与提出更好的化学疗法相比 帮助100万的人戒烟
It saves many more lives if you stop a million people from smoking,
将会挽救更多的生命
than coming up with better chemotherapies.
所以为何不停止所有疾病的成因:老化的过程
So why not put a halt to the cause of all disease: the process of aging.
概括来说 老化是由物理变化引发的 而非生物现象
In a nutshell, aging is caused by physics,and not biology.
让我们想一下汽车
Think of cars.
长久的摩擦损耗之后 部分零件开始脱落
Parts wear down from rubbing and grinding.
金属生锈
Metal rusts.
过滤器堵塞
Filters get plugged.
橡胶干裂
Rubber cracks.
我们的身体经历数以万计细微的物理变化以后 也会逐渐垮掉
Our bodies are worn down by trillions of tiny physical processes.
氧气 太阳辐射 自身的新陈代谢
oxygen, radiation from the sun, our metabolism.
我们的身体有很多机制可以修复这些损害
Our bodies have many mechanisms to repair this damage,
但随着推移 这种修复就会越发困难
but over time they become less effective.
因此我们的骨骼 肌肉都会退化
So our bones and muscles weaken.
皮肤长皱纹
Our skin wrinkles.
免疫系统变低
Our immune system gets weaker.
记忆力下降 感知变弱
We lose our memory and our senses diminish.
没有因为年老而死亡这一说
There’s no such thing as dying of old age.
我们都会死是因为 我们身体某个重要部位坏了
We all die because one of our important parts breaks.
我们年纪越老
The older we get,
我们就越会遭受损害 变得越脆弱
the more damaged and fragile we become
最后一种或多种疾病侵袭我们的身体 然后杀了我们
until one or multiple diseases take over and kill us.
而我们大多数人却没有注意
Unnoticed by most of us,
关于寿命的调查研究
longevity research has made
在过去几年 有着空前的发展
some unprecedented advances in the last few years.
这是第一次
For the first time,
我们开始理解老化背后身体机制的变化
we’re starting to understand the mechanisms behind aging
以及如何控制他们
and how to manipulate them.
衰老这件事既不神秘也不是不可避免的
Aging is neither mystical nor inevitable,
在我们的有生之年 我们也许可以阻止
and we might be able to stop
或者延迟变老的过程
or delay it during your lifetime.
我们会在另一个视频中讨论其背后的科学
We’ll discuss the science behind it
以及科学家们如何试图阻止老化
and how scientists are trying to stop it in another video.
但是首先
But first,
如果我们可以做到这一点
if we could,
我们应该阻止老化进程么?
should we end aging?
这想法真的好么?
Is this a good idea?
结束老化或者寿命延长会让很多人感到不舒服
The end of aging or life extension makes many people uncomfortable.
我们出生
We’re born,
成长
are young,
变老
become older,
死亡
and then we die.
这是我们整个人类发展的自然规律
This has been the natural order for literally all of human history,
所以逐渐变老其实很好 不是么?
and getting old is a good thing, right?
我们庆祝活得更久去体验年老的想法
We celebrate the idea of living long enough to experience old age.
我们甚至称那为金色年华
We even call them the golden years.
但是现实是 每个人都希望变得成熟
But the reality is that everybody wants to become old,
但没人希望他们会变老
but nobody wants to be old.
举个例子 比如希腊神话中的提托诺斯
Think of the Greek myth of Tithonus for example.
提托诺斯是黎明女神的爱人 他也应该是个好爱人
Tithonus was the lover of the goddess Eos and probably an amazing dude,
黎明女神祈求宙斯给予他不朽的生命
because she begged Zeus to grant him immortality,
这样他们就可以永远在一起了
so they could spend eternity together.
但是黎明女神忘记向宙斯恳求让他永葆青春了
But she forgot to specifically ask for eternal youth.
提托诺斯享有永久的生命
Tithonus was granted eternal life,
但他慢慢老去
but he kept aging,
永远不能死亡
unable to die.
数百年后
After a few hundred years,
他最终竟缩成一颗葡萄那般大小
he was reduced to the size of a grape,
只会愚痴的咿呀着
babbling on senselessly forever.
几千年以前 人类就已经害怕无止境的晚年
Thousands of years ago, humans already feared never-ending old age.
终止衰老并不意味着我们身体会越来越衰弱
But ending aging does not mean getting weaker and weaker.
但如果你已经很大年纪了 那就有点为时已晚了
If you become too old, it’s too late.
一个90岁的老年人 停止老化 不管怎么样 几年后还会去世
A 90 year old who stopped aging would die anyway after a few years.
因为他身体机能已经损害太多了
Too much damage has been done to his internal machinery.
疾病很容易就侵袭他的身体
There are already too many surfaces for disease to attack.
但延长寿命这个概念应该是 没有疾病的情况下
Instead, the concept of life extension promises to end diseases,
打破最大年龄限制
and with them, the end of a fixed maximum age.
我们还不知道人类寿命可以延长多久
We don’t know how much we could prolong our lives.
我们也许可以让每个人健康活到120岁左右
We might make every human healthy
这是目前公认可接受的最大年龄
to the currently accepted maximum age of around 120,
或者我们可能阻止生物性衰老以及疾病的发生
or we might stop biological aging and disease indefinitely.
目前这是个未知的可能性
Nobody knows at this point what’s possible.
好吧 即使我们能够做到这点 我们应该这样做么?
Okay, but even if we could achieve that, should we?
寿命延长真的只是另一个医疗术语
Well, life extension is really just another phrase for medicine.
所有的医生都在致力于研究延长寿命
All the doctors are doing is trying to prolong life,
最小化对人类的伤害
and minimize suffering.
大量主要的医疗资源都用来研究老龄化结果
The vast majority of healthcare resources are spent on the consequences of aging.
你将花费近一半你一生的医疗费用在你的晚年
Nearly half of your lifetime healthcare costs will be spent during your senior years,
而另三分之一用在中年
and another third during middle age.
实际上 我们已经努力在以目前的药物来延长寿命
We are actually already trying to prolong life with our current medicine.
但是这种办法效率很低
We’re just doing it very inefficiently.
尝试阻止老龄化的发生
Trying to stop aging from happening
这件事并不会比移植心脏
is not less natural than transplanting a heart,
采用化学疗法治疗癌症
treating cancer with chemotherapy,
使用抗生素或者疫苗不自然
using antibiotics or vaccines.
时下的人类已经不是单纯的自然发展了
Nothing humans do nowadays is purely natural anymore,
正因为人为手段的参与 我们才会享受最好的生活标准
and we enjoy the highest standard of living ever as a consequence of that.
我们现在做的就是 等到年岁已大
What we’re doing right now is waiting until it’s too late
身体出现故障的时候
and the machine is failing.
我们竭尽全力使用大多数的资源进行修复
And then we use the vast majority of our resources trying to fix it as well as we can,
然而它却在这个过程中更加损坏
while it breaks down even further.
但寿命延长这件事本身有点荒谬
But life extension still feels hubristic.
大多数人认为 一旦他们到达某个年龄之后 就会想死
Most people assume that they will want to die once they reach a certain age,
这想法可能真的存在
and this might still be true.
很多人都不想永生
The idea of avoiding death entirely is off-putting for many.
因为即使死去也不能阻止生物性的老化
The end of biological aging would not be in the end of death in any way.
想想当你还是个孩子 一个夏日的夜晚
It’s more like a summer evening when you were a kid,
你妈妈叫你回家
and your mom called you inside.
不过你还想一直玩
You just wanted to keep playing,
在黄昏时
have a little more fun during sunset
睡觉前 多一些乐趣
before you went to sleep.
这并不是永远在外面玩
It’s not about playing outside forever,
而只是想玩得久一点
just a little longer,
直到我们感觉疲倦
until we feel tired.
如果你设想一下这个世界没有疾病
If you imagine a world without disease
你和你爱的人都可以健康的再活100年或200年
where you and your loved ones could live in good health for another 100 or 200 years,
我们的生活将会发生怎样的改变?
how would this change us?
如果我们真的可以活得更长
Would we take better care of our planet,
我们可以更好的照顾我们星球么?
if we knew we would be around longer?
如果我们可以再工作150年
If we could work for 150 years,
我们会花多长时间找寻所擅长的领域?
how much time would we spend figuring out what we’re good at?
会花多长时间用来学习?
How much more time would we spend learning?
我们现在所感受到的压力和紧张
Would the intense feeling of pressure and stress many of us are feeling right now,
会消失还是会加剧?
go away or get worse?
所以再问一次
So asking again,
如果你可以在身体健康的情况下
if you could choose how long to live right now,
选择活多久 拥有朋友和家人
in good health and with your friends and family,
你的回答会是什么呢?
what’s your personal answer?
你希望的未来会是什么样呢?
What would you like your future to look like?
CGP:但也许你还是没被说服
CGP Grey: But maybe you’re still unconvinced.
一些叨唠的声音仍然存在
Some nagging feeling remains.
这是死神一直在你的脑中低语
That is the Reaper whispering into your brain.
那就看看我的视频 听听他怎么说
Watch my video to hear what he says,
为什么你不应该听死神的话
and why you shouldn’t listen.
你永恒的未来可能就依赖它了
Your eternal future may depend on it.
Kurzgesagt:请观看CGP Grey’s频道其他视频
Kurzgesagt: Go watch the other part over at CGP Grey’s channel,
如果你还没订阅
and if you’re not already subscribed,
那就订阅我们的频道吧
subscribe.

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视频概述

永生也许并不是很好的选择,即使我们可以实现这一点。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

喋喋

审核员

审核团审核员XD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GoJsr4IwCm4

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