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世界上首位作家是谁?

Who was the world's first author? - Soraya Field Fiorio


4,300 years ago in ancient Sumer,
4300年前 在古苏美尔地区
the most powerful person in the city of Ur was banished to wander the vast desert.
乌尔城中的权力至高之人 被流放至无垠的沙漠中
Her name was Enheduanna.
她的名字是恩赫杜安娜
She was the high priestess of the moon god
她是月神的高级女祭司
and history’s first known author.
也是历史上已知的第一位作家
By the time of her exile
在流放期间
she had written 42 hymns and three epic poems
她写下42首赞美诗和3部史诗
and Sumer hadn’t heard the last of her.
但苏美尔还没有听到她的最后一部作品
Enheduanna lived 1,700 years before Sappho,
恩赫杜安娜比萨福早出生1700年
1,500 years before Homer,
比荷马早1500年
and about 500 years before the biblical patriarch Abraham.
比圣经里的人类祖先亚伯拉罕早大致500年
She was born in Mesopotamia
她出生于美索不达米亚
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
即底格里斯河与幼发拉底河之间的地区
and the birthplace of the first cities and high cultures.
这里孕育了第一批的城市群和发达文明
Her father was King Sargon the Great, history’s first empire builder,
她的父亲是历史上第一位帝国缔造者 萨尔贡大帝
who conquered the independent city-states of Mesopotamia under a unified banner.
他一统了美索不达米亚的自由城邦
Sargon was a northern Semite who spoke Akkadian,
萨尔贡是闪米特北支 使用阿卡德语
and the older Sumerian cities in the south viewed him as a foreign invader.
在南部更古老的苏美尔城邦则将他视为外来侵略者
They frequently revolted to regain their independence,
他们为重获自由而频繁起义
fracturing his new dynasty.
试图粉碎阿尔贡的新王朝
To bridge the gap between cultures,
为了弥合文化之间的隔阂
Sargon appointed his only daughter, Enheduanna, as high priestess
萨尔贡任命他的独生女恩赫杜安娜为
in the empire’s most important temple.
帝国最重要的寺庙中的高级女祭司
Female royalty traditionally served religious roles,
女性皇室成员按照惯例担任宗教职务
and she was educated to read and write in both Sumerian and Akkadian,
她受过苏美尔语和阿卡德语的读写教育
and make mathematical calculations.
且能进行数学计算
The world’s first writing started in Sumer as a system of accounting,
世界上最早的文字作品始于苏美尔 是一个记账系统
allowing merchants to communicate over long distances with traders abroad.
它使得商户可以和境外商人进行远距离交流
Their pictogram system of record keeping developed into a script
就在恩赫杜安娜出生的大致300年前
about 300 years before Enheduanna’s birth.
他们用于记录的象形符号体系发展成了文字
This early writing style, called cuneiform,
这些早期的书写形式叫做楔形文字
was written with a reed stylus pressed into soft clay to make wedge-shaped marks.
是用芦苇的尖端在粘土上压刻形成的楔形符号
But until Enheduanna,
但在恩赫杜安娜以前
this writing mostly took the form of record keeping and transcription,
这类作品大多以记录和抄写的形式出现
rather than original works attributable to individual writers.
而非个别作家的原著
Enheduanna’s Ur was a city of 34,000 people with narrow streets,
恩赫杜安娜掌管的乌尔有34000人
multi-storied brick homes, granaries, and irrigation.
有小巷 多层砖房 粮仓和灌溉设施
As high priestess, Enheduanna managed grain storage for the city,
作为高级女祭司 她掌管着城市的粮食贮存
oversaw hundreds of temple workers, interpreted sacred dreams,
监督上百名寺庙人员;解读神圣的理想
and presided over the monthly new moon festival
还主持每月的新月节
and rituals celebrating the equinoxes.
和春分时的宗教节庆
Enheduanna set about unifying
恩赫杜安娜倾计于
the older Sumerian culture with the newer Akkadian civilization.
将古苏美尔文明与新阿卡德文明相结合
To accomplish this, she wrote 42 religious hymns
为此 她结合了两种文明的神话
that combined both mythologies.
写成42首宗教赞美诗
Each Mesopotamian city was ruled by a patron deity,
美索不达米亚的各个城市都由各自的守护神统治
so her hymns were dedicated to the ruling god of each major city.
所以她的赞美诗是献予各大城市的统治神的
She praised the city’s temple, glorified the god’s attributes,
她赞颂城市的寺庙 颂扬神的美德
and explained the god’s relationship to other deities within the pantheon.
解释万神殿中众神的关系
In her writing, she humanized the once aloof gods
在她的作品中 她将一直高高在上的诸神人性化
now they suffered, fought, loved, and responded to human pleading.
他们或受难 或斗争 或相爱 并回应人类的恳求
Enheduanna’s most valuable literary contribution
恩赫杜安娜最有价值的文学贡献
was the poetry she wrote to Inanna,
当属致伊南娜之诗
goddess of war and desire,
伊南娜是战争和欲望的女神
the divinely chaotic energy that gives spark to the universe.
凭借神的混沌之力给宇宙带来了火花
Inanna delighted in all forms of sexual expression
伊南娜对各形各色的性表达都饶有兴味
and was considered so powerful that she transcended gender boundaries,
她被认为相当强大 以至于超越了性别界限
as did her earthly attendants
就像她在地球上的随从一样
who could be prostitutes, eunuchs or cross-dressers.
比如妓女 太监 或者异装者
Enheduanna placed Inanna at the top of the pantheon as the most powerful deity.
恩赫杜安娜把伊南娜置于最有权威的众神之首
Her odes to Inanna mark the first time an author writes using the pronoun “I”,
她对伊南娜的赞美诗标志着第一次有作者使用代词“我”写作
and the first time writing is used to explore deep, private emotions.
以及第一次通过写作探索深层的内在情绪
After the death of Enheduanna’s father, King Sargon,
在恩赫杜安娜的父亲萨尔贡大帝去世后
a general took advantage of the power vacuum and staged a coup.
一位将军趁权力真空时期发动了政变
As a powerful member of the ruling family, Enheduanna was a target
作为统治阶级的强大一员
Enheduanna was a target
恩赫杜安娜成为了讨伐对象
and the general exiled her from Ur.
于是将军将她从乌尔逐出
Her nephew, the legendary Sumerian king Naram-Sin,
她的侄子 传奇的苏美尔国王纳拉姆辛
ultimately crushed the uprising and restored his aunt as high priestess.
最终镇压了叛乱 随后恢复他的姑姑为高级女祭司
In total, Enheduanna served as high priestess for 40 years.
恩赫杜安娜担任高级女祭司统共40年
After her death, she became a minor deity,
她死后成了一介小神
and her poetry was copied, studied, and performed
她的诗则被抄写 研究 演绎
throughout the empire for over 500 years.
并在帝国传诵了500多年
Her poems influenced
她的诗影响了
the Hebrew Old Testament, the epics of Homer,
希伯来文旧约 荷马史诗
and Christian hymns.
以及基督教赞美诗
Today, Enheduanna’s legacy still exists ,
如今 恩赫杜安娜的遗作尚存于
on clay tablets that have stood the test of time.
经受住时间考验的陶土板上
and Enheduanna wasn’t the only literary princess of old
说起来 古时从事写作的公主可不只有恩赫戴安娜
Take a look at the life and work of Anna Komnene
看看安娜·科莫内的生平和作品
a historian torn between loyalty to her controversial family
这位历史学家在忠于充满争议的家庭
and loyalty to the truth
还是忠于真理之间左右为难

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是谁书写了世界上第一部文学作品?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XhNw1BhV6sw

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