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谁负责给月球上的地点起名?

Who names the places on the Moon?

This is Apollo 11,
这是阿波罗11号
landing on the Moon for the first time in human history.
人类历史上第一艘登上月球的飞行器
Just a few seconds after touchdown, Neil Armstrong said
在它着陆后几秒钟 尼尔·阿姆斯特朗说道
“Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed”.
“这里是静海基地 鹰号已着陆”
Tranquility Base was the name that NASA had chosen
美国宇航局将人类历史上第一个登月点
for the site of the first moon landing.
命名为“静海基地”
It’s located in the south-western corner of the Lunar plain
基地位于月球上被称作“静海”
called Mare Tranquillitatis or Sea of Tranquillity.
或“宁静海”的平原西南角
This is just one out of thousands of names that have been given to geographical features on the Moon.
这只是众多与月球地理特征相关的名字之一
But who is in charge of coming up with these names?
究竟是谁负责想出的这些名字?
And are they official?
他们是官方的吗?
In this video we’re going to look at how we began
在这个视频中 我们将会了解人们是如何
naming features on the moon.
为月球地理实体命名的
We’re also going to look at who’s in charge of making these names official
我们也将看到是谁负责它们的官方命名权
and the strict rules around naming a place on the Moon.
了解到月球地理实体严格的命名规则
In the year 1610, Galileo released his famous drawings of the Moon.
1610年 伽利略发表了著名的月面图
Looking through one of the world’s very first telescopes, he studied the moon closely
利用最早期的望远镜 伽利略深入研究了月球
and was able to produce drawings
并能精确绘制出
which accurately represented the Moon’s harsh features
月球表面坑凹不平的图画
in a way that no one else had ever seen before.
这种研究方式前所未见
Although Galileo had essentially created the very first map of the Moon,
虽然伽利略基本上绘出了第一张月球地图
there were no place names on this map.
但在这张地图上还没有地名
40 years later, a new map of the Moon was created
40年后 天文学家Riccioli和Grimaldi
by astronomers Riccioli and Grimaldi.
绘制了一张新的月球图
This map divided the Moon up into 8 sections
地图将月球分为八个部分
and names like ‘Tranquility’ and ‘Serenity’
其中名为“宁静”和“平静”的
were given to the great mountains and flat plains that lay in between.
两个地区之间坐落着大山和平原
This map quickly became the basis for naming the Moon’s features
这张地图迅速成为了月球地理实体命名的基础
and many of the original names are still used to this day.
许多名字至今仍被沿用
Fast forward by a few centuries and we have the birth of spaceflight.
几个世纪之后 宇宙飞船诞生于世
In 1959, the Soviets became the first to send a probe to the far side of the moon.
1959年 苏联成了第一个向月背发射探测器的国家
This probe successfully imaged the side of the Moon
这个探测器成功地拍下了
which had never been seen before by humans.
人类以前从未见过的月球侧面的图像
With this new perspective of the Moon’s hidden surface,
有了月球表面的新视角
the Soviets started to name features after Russian Heroes and place names.
苏联人开始用俄罗斯英雄和地名 来命名月球地物
Over the next decade,
在接下来的十年里
America and The Soviets started to piece together higher quality images
美国和苏联逐渐拼凑出月球背面更高质量的图像
of the far side of the Moon whilst continuing to name newly found features.
并相继命名新发现的地理实体
Although NASA often informally names features on the Moon,
虽然NASA经常会给月球地物起一些别名
they don’t actually have any authority to officially assign names to lunar features.
但实际上他们并没有正式为月球地物命名的权力
When naming features on other planetary bodies,
给其他行星地物命名
each name has to be accepted by the International Astronomical Union.
都必须具有国际天文学联合会的许可
However, it’s not just NASA that can suggest names,
然而 不仅限于NASA 任何人都可以
anyone can sudmit a name to the IAU,
向国际天文联合会提出命名申请
as long as it complies with their specific guidelines.
前提是要符合他们的命名规则
Almost all craters on the Moon must be named after deceased scientists
月球上几乎所有的环形山都必须以已故科学家
or explorers who have made a significant contribution to their field.
或对自己领域做出重大贡献的探险家的名字来命名
The large plains that are so common on the Moon must be given Latin names
在月球上常见的大平原 必须用描述天气
which describe things like weather and other abstract concepts.
和其他抽象概念的拉丁语命名
Ridges like these which are found on the Moon have to be named specifically after Geoscientists.
在地球上发现的这些山脊 必须以地学家的名字命名
Although these names must be attached to significant people within the science community,
尽管这些名字必须与科学界的重要人物联系在一起
the scale of a Lunar feature doesn’t necessarily reflect who it’s named after.
但月球地物的规模和名字来源却没有必然联系
Copernicus and Archimedes both have their names attached to spectacularly large craters,
哥白尼和阿基米德都被附名给巨型陨石坑
whereas other science legends like Galileo and Newton
而其如伽利略 牛顿的科学传奇
were given features that are much less impressive.
则被附名给不那么瞩目的地物
In 1970, the IAU agreed to name
1970年 国际天文联合会同意
one of the widest craters on the Moon ‘Apollo’
将月球上最宽的陨石坑之一命名为“阿波罗”
and smaller craters within Apollo
阿波罗内的小型陨石坑
were named after astronauts from the Apollo 8 missions.
则以阿波罗8号宇航员的名字命名
Nearby craters were later named after deceased NASA employees,
附近的陨石坑后来以已故的NASA员工的名字命名
including the lost crew of Apollo 1 and the two Space Shuttle disasters.
包括阿波罗1号和两次航天飞机灾难的失踪人员
So although these names might not be familiar to us now,
虽然这些名字现在可能不为我们熟知
in the future when space tourism is a reality,
但在未来 当太空旅行成为现实的时候
places like Apollo, Borman and Lovell might be as common to us
像阿波罗 博尔曼和洛维尔这样的地方 也许就会像
as New York, Paris and Tokyo.
纽约 巴黎和多伦多一样平常
Thank you to the Primal Space patrons
感谢《揭秘太空》的赞助者
who help to write and research each video.
他们帮助编写 研究每一个视频
If you’d like to contribute to Primal Space
如果你想要为《揭秘太空》贡献一份力量
and join our exclusive Discord,
并且加入我们的Discord
please visit Patreon.com/PrimalSpace,
请访问网址 Patreon.com/PrimalSpace
where we will be giving away 3 copies of Kerbal Space Program
一旦赞助人数达到100 我们将会送出三份
once we reach 100 patrons.
《坎巴拉太空计划》副本
So make sure you’re subscribed
所以最好订阅我们的频道
so you can in join the discussion as we continue to learn more
以便加入我们的讨论
about all things space.
了解更多太空奥秘
Thank you very much for watching and I’ll see you in the next video.
非常感谢您的观看 我们下个视频再见

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视频概述

本文简要介绍了给月球上的特征命名的历史及负责命名的人员

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-5e3b9

审核员

审核员CR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZIwTRe03-M

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