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什么能生活在火山的底部? – 译学馆
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什么能生活在火山的底部?

Who Lives At The Bottom of The Volcano?

地球上有一些力量
There are forces on earth
能够改变地形
capable of changing the terrain,
创造或毁灭整个岛屿
creating or obliterating entire islands
并在全球范围内引起自然变化
and causing natural transformations on a global scale.
数亿年前
Hundreds of millions of years ago,
这些同样的力量开始形成第一个陆地景观
These same forces began to form the first terrestrial landscapes
在整个原岩中读取各种矿物
spreading various minerals throughout the primary rock.
这些力量如此神秘
These forces are so mysterious that
以至于最优秀的研究者
even the best researchers
配备最新的技术
equipped with the latest technology
也不能预测何时它们将再次
cannot predict when they will once again
对地球产生强大的影响
exert their powerful effects on the planet.
你可能已经猜到
As you might have guessed,
我要谈论火山
I’m talking about volcanoes.
多亏了电影和电视
Thanks to movies and television,
大多数人已经知道它们是什么
most of you already have an idea of what they are
以及他们多么危险
and how dangerous they can be.
事实上 你们中的一些人甚至可能近距离
Some of you, in fact, may have even seen these monsters
看到过这些怪物
up close and personal.
当然 这世界上有
Currently, there are more than
1000多座火山
a thousand volcanoes in the world.
大概有500座是活火山
About 500 of them are active,
也就是说
meaning that at any moment
他们随时都可能醒过来爆发
they can wake up and erupt.
岩浆上升到地表时爆发
Eruptions occur when magma comes up to the surface.
气体被困在岩浆中
The gas is trapped in the magma,
然后逃进大气层
then escape into the atmosphere.
接着 岩浆变成火山岩浆
Next, the magma turns into lava,
这会在几个小时内
which can devastate the surrounding areas
摧毁周围地区
in a matter of hours.
由于熔岩流的速度
As the speed of a lava flow
可以达到每秒数米
can reach several meters per second and
温度超过2200℉
its temperature exceed 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit
或1200℃
or 1,200 Celsius.
似乎生活在这些地质
It would seem that life existing
附近的任何地方
anywhere close to these geological giants
都是不可能的
should be simply impossible.
但如果我告诉你 情况不是这样呢
But what if I told you, it isn’t so?
在古代 居住在火山附近的人们
In ancient times, people living near volcanoes
相信神居住在
believed that gods live deep
这些爆炸的山脉深处
inside these exploding mountains.
几千年过去了
Millennia have now passed and
科学研究已经到了一定的境地
scientific research has reached the point
人们终于可以看见
where people can finally meet
这些不可思议的
the mystical inhabitants
生机勃勃的神秘居住地
of these mounds of irreptitious exuberance.
20世纪80年代
In the 1980s,
火山内部和周围发现了细菌
in and around volcanoes, bacteria were discovered.
它们生活在
They live at temperatures
超过水沸点的温度下
exceeding the boiling point of water.
当时 这一发现
At the time, this discovery was
令人吃惊 也不可思议
astonishing and inconceivable.
因为DNA结构已经
As the structure of DNA had been
被证实在远低于
shown to be destroyed
176华氏度
at a much lower temperature of
也就是大约80摄氏度
176 degrees Fahrenheit
会被破坏
or about 80 Celsius.
但这些细菌不仅
But these bacteria not only did
在热水中游的很好
swimmingly well in the scorching heat,
还令人惊奇的是
they also astoundingly died
在冷水中他们会死
when placed in cold water.
在两到四公里深的海底
Small underwater volcanoes found on the ocean floor
发现的小型水下火山
at a depth of between two to four kilometers
也证明
also turned out to be
物种多样性特别丰富
particularly rich in biodiversity.
这些火山周围的温度
The temperature around these volcanoes
远远高于破坏DNA 或者说生物的致死水平
is well above the DNA destroying life killing level.
此外 那里的深海水压
Additionally, the deep-sea water pressure there
非常大
is crushingly enormous.
最重要的是 水本身
And to top it off, the water itself
充满了大量有毒的重金属
is saturated with numerous dangerous heavy metals,
硫化氢和
poisonous hydrogen sulfide and
各种其他有毒有害物质
a variety of other noxious and toxic substances.
然而 大约400种不同物种
Nevertheless, around 400 different species
把家安在这些喷出
make their home in the areas around these
气体和熔岩的地区
gas and lava spewing geological formations.
除了各种单细胞生物之外
And in addition to the various unicellular organisms,
这些密集群体还包括
this hearty crowd also includes a variety of
各种蠕虫 虾 蟹和海蛇
worms, shrimps, crabs and sea snakes.
惊喜还不止于此
And the surprises don’t end there, either.
最近 在太平洋
More recently, in the crater of
45米深处的卡瓦契火山
the under-sea Kavachi volcano in the Pacific Ocean
的火山口
at a depth of 45 metres,
科学家们发现了一件非常惊人的事情
scientists discovered something truly astonishing.
在考察太平洋深处时
While surveying the depths of the Pacific Ocean,
一些国家地理研究人员
some National Geographic field researchers
决定观察鲜为人知的
decided to look at what was happening
卡瓦基火山附近发生的事情
near the little-known Kavachi volcano.
2003年火山爆发
The eruption of which in 2003
在世界地图上出现了一个新岛屿
resulted in the appearance of a new island on world maps.
在将潜水摄像机降低
After lowering a submersible camera
到相当于一栋17层建筑高度的深度
to a depth equal to the height of a 17-story building,
正好进入火山口的开口后
right into the opening of the crater,
他们受到了超乎想象
they were treated to a spectacle
的礼遇
that surpassed their wildest expectations.
在卡瓦契火山的火山口 生命是繁荣的
In the crater of the Kavachi volcano, life is flourishing.
那里有巨大的鱼群
There are huge shoals of fish,
大量的各种鳐鱼
great numbers of various rays
和成群的水母
and swarms of jellyfish.
这样一幅奇妙的图画使科学家们迷惑不解
Such a fantastic picture puzzled the scientists.
在这些看似不友好的条件下
All these creatures seemed totally at ease
所有这些生物似乎是完全悠闲地
in these seemingly inhospitable conditions.
在炽热的高酸性
Swimming carelessly in the
水中漫不经心地游泳
blistering hot highly acidic water.
似乎这还不够令人惊讶
As if that weren’t surprising enough,
当研究人员观看录像时
when watching the recording,
完全不知所措地
the researchers were utterly bewildered to see
看到了各种各样的鲨鱼
several species of sharks of all things.
这一发现确实令人震惊
This discovery was truly staggering
在这种无情的环境中
the existence of some bacteria
某些细菌
in this unforgiving environment
的存在仍然可以用某种方式解释
could still somehow be explained.
但是 没有人会想到
But no one could even remotely suspect
像鲨鱼这样复杂的生物
that such complex organisms
能够适应
as sharks could adapt to
这些严酷和令人生畏的条件
these harsh and forbidding conditions.
关于动物为什么选择这个
There is as yet no plausible answer to the question
特定的地方
as to why the animals chose
作为栖息地的问题 目前还没有可信的答案
this particular place as their habitat.
尽管他们对栖息地怪异的选择
But despite their bizarre choice of living arrangements,
但是这些生物看起来
it looks as though these creatures
做得还不够好
are doing more than well enough.
在设法适应之后
Having somehow managed to adapt,
他们成了这种危险环境
they’ve become the sole possessors of
的唯一拥有者
this precarious environment.
事实上 它所提供的所有丰富的重要资源
In fact, thriving on all of the vital resources it offers,
还有待观察
it remains to be seen.
但是 他们还能享受多久
However, how long they’ll be able to
的深海游呢
enjoy their deep-sea idle?
你可能已经猜到
As you’ve probably guessed,
这样一座火山只要一次小小的喷发
it would take just a single minor eruption
就能毁灭附近的所有生命
of such a volcano to wipe out all nearby life.
这些鱼群
All those schools of fish,
无数的鳐鱼和水母 一群群鲨鱼
myriads of rays and jellyfish, groups of sharks
包括细菌在内的其他生物
and other animals including bacteria
将在几分钟内
would shuffle off this mortal coil
从这个致命的线圈中抽走
in a matter of minutes.
但是这些勇敢的反抗死亡
But these brave death-defying
的生物作出了选择
creatures made their choice,
尽管他们无意中生活在火药桶上
though unwittingly to live on top of a powder keg.
如果几个广泛分布
If several representatives of a few
物种的几个代表突然消失
widely distributed species suddenly disappeared,
这可能不是地球母亲最大的悲剧
it probably wouldn’t be the greatest tragedy for mother earth.
不像人类突然消失或者更糟
Unlike the sudden disappearance of mankind
地球上所有的生命(消失)
or worse, all life on the planet.
信不信由你,火山可以引发
Believe it or not, volcanoes could bring about
这样的事件
just such an event
或者更确切地说 超级火山可以
or to be more precise, super volcanoes could.
在北美大片地区
Out in the great expanses of North America,
美国怀俄明州有黄石国家公园
in the US state of Wyoming lies Yellowstone National Park,
它是该国最重要的自然地标之一
one of the country’s top natural landmarks,
它的美景无与伦比
this site’s unsurpassed beauty and
每年吸引着数百万游客
plethora of wildlife attract millions of tourists every year.
但这种丰富的自然风光
But this abundance of natural splendor
可能会在瞬间消失
could disappear in a split second.
黄石公园的大部分
The majority of Yellowstone Park
位于黄石火山口的顶部
is located on top of the Yellowstone Caldera.
简单地说
In simpler terms,
它在一座巨型超级火山的火山口
it is in the crater of a giant supervolcano.
占地面积超过1700平方英里
one which occupies an area of more than 1,700 square miles.
那是4400平方公里
That’s 4,400 square kilometres.
把它想象成42万个足球场
Think of it as four hundred twenty thousand soccer fields.
这个公园的巨大特征
This immense feature that underlies the park was
直到上个世纪下半叶才被发现
only recently discovered in the second half of the last century.
多亏了卫星摄影
Thanks to satellite photography.
即使现在 它变成了一个巨大的岩浆泡
Even now, it turns out a huge bubble of magma,
不祥地坐落在地表以下5英里处
sits ominously five miles below the surface,
其熔融物的温度达到惊人的
with the temperature of its molten contents
1500华氏度
reaching a staggering 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit
或815摄氏度
or 815 Celsius.
这项发现在火山学家中引起了
This discovery caused quite a lot of excitement
相当多的兴奋和明显的惊愕
and obviously consternation among volcanologists.
毕竟 如果这样一个巨人突然活跃起来
After all, if such a giant suddenly became active,
地球上的所有生命都将岌岌可危
all life on the planet would be in jeopardy.
在研究黄石超级火山
During studies of the Yellowstone
地质历史的过程中
supervolcano in its geological history,
研究人员发现这个怪物
researchers discovered that this monster
过去曾爆发过几次
has erupted several times in the past.
结果 在数百万年前
As a result, of one of these eruptions,
的一次火山爆发中 北美大陆90 %
several million years ago, 90% of the territory of
的领土被火山灰覆盖
the North American continent was covered in volcanic ash.
目前黄石破火山口周围
Currently the Yellowstone caldera is ringed with
有十几个地震和热力研究站
a dozen seismological and thermal research stations
记录超级火山活动
that record every minu change
每一分钟的变化
in the super volcanoes activity.
研究这种地质怪物的科学家
The scientists studying this geological monstrosity
比任何人都更了解
understand better than anyone
黄石超级火山应该醒来
that should the Yellowstone supervolcano wake up.
我们今天所知的生活很可能结束
Life as we know it today might well be over.
有充分的理由认为这是一种真正的可能性
And there are plenty of reasons to consider this a real possibility.
每次爆发后 间隔时间
The intervals between eruptions have been getting shorter
越来越短
after each occurrence.
的确 考虑到这些区间的地质规模
True, given the geological scale of these intervals.
乍一看 这些信息对
At first glance, this information has no
我们这些卑微的人来说没有实际意义
practical significance for us humble human beings.
考虑到黄石超级火山
taking into account that the Yellowstone supervolcano
爆发在两百万年前
erupted two million years ago,
1.3百万年前和最后的六十万年前
then 1.3 million years ago and finally 600,000 years ago.
美国地质学会预测
The US Geological Society forecast that
这一火山巨兽
the next awakening of this
下一次觉醒
volcanic mega monster should occur
最迟将在2万年后
no earlier than 20,000 years from now.
但是 由于最近从火山观测到
However, due to increased activity
火山活动增加
observed from the volcano recently,
计算结果发生了变化
the calculations have changed
新的预报非常令人不安
and the new forecast is extremely disturbing.
最新的计算显示
The latest calculations showed that
早在2020年
a new catastrophe could be expected
一场新的灾难就可以预料到……
as early as the year two thou…
那么 我应该停止喋喋不休
Well, I should stop blathering and chit chattering.
对大家都好
Be well, everyone.
稍后我们将重温这一预测
We’ll revisit this forecast in later episodes
因为我有更多关于这一迷人话题
as I have more curious tidings
的好奇消息要与大家分享
on this charming subject to share with you.

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译制信息
视频概述

在火山附近生活着意想不到的生物

听录译者

Felicity

翻译译者

离索

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GkZYzMDxhM

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