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夏洛克·福尔摩斯究竟是谁? – 译学馆
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夏洛克·福尔摩斯究竟是谁?

Who IS Sherlock Holmes - Neil McCaw

在他第一次在维多利亚时期那亮着煤气灯、
More than a century after first emerging
迷雾重重的伦敦街头 现身一个多世纪之后
into the fog-bound, gas-lit streets of Victorian London,
夏洛克·福尔摩斯如今在世界上家喻户晓
Sherlock Holmes is universally recognizable.
甚至连他的服饰也成了他的标志:
Even his wardrobe and accessories are iconic:
带护肩的斗篷、
the Inverness cape,
猎鹿帽
deerstalker hat,
和葫芦式烟斗
and calabash pipe,
而且诸如他最好的朋友和室友华生、
and figures such as his best friend and housemate Doctor Watson,
死敌莫里亚蒂
arch-nemesis Moriarty,
和房东哈德森太太
and housekeeper Mrs. Hudson
也都为公众所熟知
have become part of the popular consciousness,
就像他那用于伸张法律的
as have his extraordinary, infallible powers of deduction
非凡可靠的推理能力、
utilized in the name of the law,
他那恶名昭著的吸毒行为
his notorious drug use,
以及他那著名的口头禅:“这很简单 我亲爱的华生 ”
and his popular catchphrase, “Elementary, my dear Watson.”
然而福尔摩斯这些鲜明特点的相当一部分
And yet many of these most recognizable features of Holmes
并未在阿瑟·柯南·道尔的原版小说中出现
don’t appear in Arthur Conan Doyle’s original stories.
道尔笔下的伟大侦探使用各种途径侦破案件
Doyle’s great detective solves crimes in all sorts of ways,
而并非只通过推理
not just using deduction.
他会怀疑 有时甚至靠猜测 且时常作出错误的假设
He speculates, and at times even guesses, and regularly makes false assumptions.
不仅如此 哈德孙太太很少被提及
Furthermore, Mrs. Hudson is barely mentioned,
没人说过“这很简单 我亲爱的华生”
no one says, “Elementary, my dear Watson,”
这位神探和他的朋友大多数时候也不住在一起
and the detective and his sidekick live apart for much of the time.
大反派莫里亚蒂只在两个故事中出现过
Moriarty, the grand villain, only appears in two stories,
在前两部小说后这位神探也不再频繁吸毒
the detective’s drug use is infrequent after the first two novels,
他更很少为英国的法律系统所吸引;
and Holmes is rarely enthralled to the English legal system;
相比于坚守法律条文
He much prefers enacting his own form of natural justice
他更倾向于以自己的形式伸张正义最后
to sticking to the letter of the law.
福尔摩斯式传奇中的大量标志性元素
Finally, many of the most iconic elements of the Holmesian legend
也不出自道尔
aren’t Doyle’s either.
猎鹿帽和斗篷源于故事最初的插画家
The deerstalker cap and cape were first imagined by Sidney Paget,
Sidney Paget的想象
the story’s initial illustrator.
弯曲的烟斗则是美国演员William Gillette用它
the curved pipe was chosen by American actor William Gillette
来使这样观众能更清楚地看到他的面部
so that audiences could more clearly see his face on stage,
至于“这很简单 我亲爱的华生”这句话
and the phrase, “Elementary, my dear Watson,”
则是作家和幽默家P.G.Wodehouse的创造
was coined by author and humorist P.G. Wodehouse.
那么福尔摩斯到底是个怎样的人?
So who exactly is Sherlock Holmes?
真正的伟大神探是谁 我们又该到哪去寻找他呢?
Who’s the real great detective, and where do we find him?
正统主义者会回答说柯南·道尔从他的大学导师
Purists might answer that the original Sherlock
Joseph Bell博士那得到灵感所创作的夏洛克
inspired by Arthur Conan Doyle’s university mentor Dr. Joseph Bell
是最真实的
is the real one.
但事实是大量不同的诠释
But the fact remains that that version of Sherlock has been largely eclipsed
很大程度上掩盖了这个版本的福尔摩斯
by the sheer volume of interpretation,
导致道尔笔下的侦探形象模糊不清
leaving Doyle’s detective largely unrecognizable.
因此有另一个更加复杂
So there’s another, more complex,
但或许更令人满意的答案但是
but perhaps more satisfying answer to the question,
我们必须首先考虑对于这位侦探的
but to get there, we must first consider the vast body of interpretations
海量的不同诠释
of the great detective.
在柯南·道尔1887年发表第一个故事后
Since Conan Doyle’s first story in 1887,
出现了成千上万个改编版的福尔摩斯
there have been thousands of adaptations of Holmes,
使得他几乎成为世界上被改编次数最多的虚构人物
making him perhaps the most adapted fictional character in the world.
这一过程自维多利亚时期的戏剧改编开始
That process began with Victorian stage adaptations,
并在电影最初萌生阶段迅速增加
and accelerated with the emergence of film.
仅在20世纪前20年就出现了
There were more than 100 film adaptations of Holmes
超过100种电影改编版的福尔摩斯
in the first two decades of the 20th century alone.
从那以后 更多的版本成千上万地在书籍、
And since then, there have many thousands more in print,
电影、
and on film,
电视、
television,
舞台
stage,
和广播中出现
and radio.
福尔摩斯被各地的人们
Holmes has been reinterpreted by people everywhere,
塑造成不同 甚至相反的形象
in remarkably different, and often contradictory ways.
这些改编同时展现了福尔摩斯的普及性
These adaptations demonstrate both Holmes’s popularity
以及可塑性比如
and his malleability.
在二战时期 他出现在了同盟国的
For instance, he featured in a number of allied anti-Nazi propaganda films
许多反纳粹宣传片中
during World War II.
温斯顿·丘吉尔和富兰克林·迪兰诺·罗斯福
And both Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt
都是爱好者
were avid enthusiasts,
后者甚至加入了贝克街小分队
the latter even joining the Baker Street Irregulars,
一个福尔摩斯鉴赏协会
a Holmesian appreciation society,
并将一处特工据点命名为贝克街然而
and nicknaming one secret service hideout Baker Street.
与此同时
And yet, at the very same time,
福尔摩斯也出现在各种德语影片中
Holmes also appeared in various German-language film adaptations,
其中一些据说是阿道夫·希特勒的至爱
some of which were said to have been much-loved favorites of Adolf Hitler.
让我们回到刚才的问题
So let’s return to our question.
真正的夏洛克·福尔摩斯请现身!
Would the real Sherlock Holmes please stand up?
事实是 这些各式各样的改编已经使他成为一个多义词
The truth is that this world of adaptation has made him into a palimpsest.
夏洛克是一种文化的代名词
Sherlock is a cultural text,
它随着每一种诠释的叠加
repeatedly altered over time as each new interpretation becomes superimposed
不断地变化
over those that proceed it.
这意味着夏洛克在不断地进化
This means that Sherlock continually evolves,
其拥有的思维和价值观
embodying ideas and values often far removed
都与柯南·道尔的原版相去甚远
from those found in Conan Doyle.
随着每个单一的故事的结束
And after each particular story ends, Sherlock rises again,
夏洛克又
a little changed, perhaps,
会再次出现 他或许带着一点小小的变化
with a new face and fresh mannerisms or turns of phrase,
也许是拥有一张新的面孔 或是一句新的口头禅 但本质上 他仍是夏洛克 我们的夏洛克
but still essentially Sherlock, our Sherlock.

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