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金字塔是谁建的?

Who built the pyramids?

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It is a common misconception
人们普遍误认为
that the builders of the pyramids were slaves forced to work by the King.
国王强迫奴隶建造金字塔
However, these workers were, for the most part, skilled builders and craftsman
事实上 大部分的工人们都是熟练的建筑师和工匠
In the permanent service of the King
他们长期为国王服务
The specific numbers of the workforce needed
建造这样一座历史遗迹所需要的人力
for the building of such monuments is difficult to precisely identify.
我们很难具体计算
What we do know is that these men were divided
我们知道的是
into crews of peasant conscripts of about 2,000 men.
被征召而来的农民大约有2000名
The crews were divided into two gangs,
全体工人被分成两队
which in turn were divided into 5 groups called ‘saa’
然后又被分成5组saa
Of 200 men
每组200人
These groups were themselves divided into 10 divisions of 20 men
这些小组自行分成各20人的10个分组
or maybe 20 divisions of 10 men.
或者是各10个人的20个分组
The different gangs had names, which usually
不同的队有不同的队名
included that of the reigning king,
通常队名中包含当时的国王
such as Friends of Khufu
比如胡夫的同盟
and the drunkards of Menkaure.
和孟卡拉的醉鬼
These different gangs had different tasks
不同的队在建造金字塔的过程中
within the construction of the pyramid.
要完成不同的任务
Thanks to expeditions carried out throughout the 20th century,
感谢20世纪的考察队
we have access to the skeletal remains of some of the pyramid builders.
我们得以见到一些金字塔建造者们的骸骨
And these have been analyzed in bio archaeological studies.
这些骸骨被送去进行生物考古分析
To be able to further gauge
为了可以更进一步观察
how the health of the pyramid builders
这些金字塔建造者的健康状况
compare to other people living at Giza contemporaneously,
与同时代住在吉萨的人们相比如何
various indicators of health have been compared from these two populations–
我们从两类人中选择了几项健康指数进行比较
coming from the Western cemetery for high officials
一类是来自西方墓地的高官
and the southeast cemetery for workers.
另一类是来自东南方墓地的工人
The evidence shows that the pyramid workers died earlier in life
结果显示金字塔工人们的寿命
than their more privileged counterparts, who were also living at Giza.
比同样住在吉萨的执权者的寿命更短
Men died nearly 10 years earlier and women died roughly five years sooner.
男性普遍早10年死去 女性则是5年
The female workers from Giza, however, exhibit a smaller stature
而且 吉萨的女工比阿马尔那的个子更小
than their Amarna counterparts, standing at 150.53 centimeters,
大概150.53厘米
while the Amarna women were roughly 154.02 centimeters.
而阿马尔那的女工154.02厘米左右
The laborers at Giza display severe changes to their vertebral bodies,
吉萨工人们的脊椎呈现了严重的变形
the largest part of an individual vertebra,
其中最大的一个椎骨
which indicates that they experienced fairly high levels of spinal trauma.
说明他们的脊椎遭受了极大的伤害
Recent evidence from the Giza Plateau suggest that,
最近来自吉萨高原的迹象表明
at least in the case of Khafre and Menkaure,
至少在哈夫拉和孟卡拉时期
the workmen were living in permanent settlements that
工人们长期居住的地方
actually represent some of the earliest known urban planning.
展现了一部分最早的城市规划
In these workmen’s villages we find abundant remains
在工人的村庄里我们发现了大量
of high quality animals, such as cattle and sheep and goats,
优质动物的遗骸 比如牛和羊
which were not normally part of the daily diet of the commoners.
这在普通人的日常饮食中很少见
In addition, the remains of two bakeries and one hospital
而且 两间面包厂和一家医院的遗址
were recovered, again, pointing to the high quality treatment
再一次展现了这些工人们
that these workers received.
享受的优等待遇

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视频概述

建造金字塔的工人是否真的都是奴隶们

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

潘魁

审核员

审核员_SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp1FNgxG9H0

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