ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

巴拿马运河的修建历史 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

巴拿马运河的修建历史

Who Built the Panama Canal?

现在是1805年 而你是个纽约人
It’s 1850 and you’re a New Yorker hearing
你听说在西海岸有那可爱的金矿
about that sweet sweet gold on the west coast.
你现在有三条路线可以走
You’ve three options
骑着骡子横跨美国
Across the country by mule,
航行环过合恩角
sail around Cape Horn,
或者乘船到巴拿马并穿过丛林
or a boat to Panama trek through the jungle
再乘船就到了大陆的另一端
and hop on another the other side.
一切顺利的话 两个月内你就可以到加州的迪斯尼乐园了
All going well, you’ll be at Disneyland within two months.
但由于巴拿马极度危险
But the Panama track was incredibly deadly,
因此在修建铁路时使用了大量爱尔兰以及中国劳工
so using Irish and Chinese laborers the Panama railroad was built.
在建成后的头十年里就有五十万人穿过
Half a million people traveled it in the first ten years.
它立刻变成了美国邮电业的主干道
It became a major artery for the US Postal Service
并且很快就就成为了纽约证券交易所的头股
and was soon the highest-priced stock on the New York exchange.
跨陆航行是个大生意
Transcontinental travel was big business.
而五十英里的陆地成为了大西洋和太平洋的唯一阻隔
50 miles of land was the only thing stopping the Atlantic for meeting the Pacific.
在货物贸易之后 随之而来的是政治和权力
And all the trade, politics and power that came with it.
法国人的尝试
French Attempt
在苏伊士运河建成后 雷赛布作为欧洲的英雄凯旋
After completing the Suez Canal Ferdinand de Lesseps returned to Europe a hero.
他将欧洲与印度的距离缩短了6000英里并让非洲变成了一个岛
He’d brought India 6,000 miles closer and made Africa an island.
在伦敦 3万人前来祝贺这位法国人
30,000 people came out to congratulate the Frenchman, in London.
在巴黎 皇室成员接待了他
His reception in Paris was one of royalty.
他还交了几个新朋友 有凡尔纳 雨果以及埃菲尔
His new friends included Jules Verne Victor Hugo and Gustave Eiffel.
因此当他宣布他的下一个目标是打穿中美洲时
So when he announced his next project was to cut
几乎没有人质疑他
through Central America few people doubted him.
在这之前 美国人已经对这里做了调查
The Americans had already done surveys of the area
决定在尼加拉瓜建立水闸控制系统
and were convinced of a lock system at Nicaragua.
然而 雷赛布却决定在巴拿马建造一条与海水齐平的运河
However de Lesseps was set on a sea-level canal at Panama.
因为这是最短的路径
It was the shortest route, and that’s all that mattered.
但在巴拿马有高山 急流 丛林 火山岩
But Panama had mountains, rivers, jungles, volcanic rock,
以及分水岭 瘴气 黄热病 美洲虎和毒蛇
a continental divide, malaria, yellow fever, jaguars, snakes,
并且严格来说 这里仍然属于哥伦比亚
and was still technically a region of Colombia.
法国工程师戈丹表示
Godin de Lépinay, the French engineer pointed out
苏伊士是因其平坦的荒漠而易于施工
that Suez have been easy for de Lesseps because it was a flat desert.
而在巴拿马使查格雷斯河改道几乎是不可能的
Re-routing the Chagres River in Panama would be an impossible task.
因此他建议用人工湖和水闸将陆地打穿
He suggested bridging the land with artificial lakes and locks.
大家都不屑一顾
Everyone laughed.
这时 万人敬仰的雷赛布发话了
The all respected de Lesseps had spoken.
运河将与海水齐平
It would be at sea level.
然后 一个国际会议就此召开 将决定最后的方案
An international conference was held to decide the final route.
除了几个去过巴拿马的工程师
Everyone but the few engineers who had actually
其余所有人都赞同雷赛布的方案
been to Panama voted with de Lesseps.
一个法国公司就此成立
A French company was set up,
他们使用加勒比和印第安工人
they bought the railroad and
修建了铁路
agreed to give Colombia 5 % of any revenue.
并同意给哥伦比亚政府其5%的总收益
Using Caribbean and Indian workers
1881年 河道两旁的丛林开始被砍掉
the jungle began to be chopped back in 1881.
巴拿马每年的降水量可达3000毫米
Annual rainfall in Panama could be three meters,
因此很快任务的艰巨也开始显现出来
soon the monumental scale of the task became apparent.
风暴后的塌方意味着所有的进程都将白费
Mudslides meant any progress would be undone after the next big storm.
因此 为了防止运河墙下滑
To stop the canal walls from sliding in,
必须削减1到4个坡度
a new slope of one to four had to be cut.
这将会使挖掘工程量翻倍
Doubling the amount of excavation.
而在运河两岸的两个最高点
At the highest point along the canal,
它们间的距离将扩展到四分之三英里
the new width would have to be three-quarters of a mile.
劳工的装备则只有砍刀和镐
Laborers were armed with nothing but a machete and a pickaxe.
有时每天就能有40个人死亡
The death toll was at times 40 a day.
在沼泽地区这样的非人道条件下 黄热病和疟疾像野火一样蔓延
Yellow fever and malaria spread like wildfire in the swampy inhumane conditions.
那些黑人劳工的尸体
Bodies of black workers will often just rolled
被当作垃圾从他们死的地方被扔到垃圾场
from where they died into the dumping grounds.
人们有时也会谈到那艘从加勒比海来的鬼船
People spoke of ghost ships arriving from the Caribbean,
船员在到达巴拿马之前就都死了
the crew dead even before reaching Panama.
1889年 法国公司破产 工程也不得不暂停
In 1889 the French company went bankrupt and work came to a halt.
有80万的投资者赔光了他们的钱 2万3千人在此丧命
800,000 investors lost their money and 23,000 people their lives.
美国人的努力
US Effort
运河一直无人敢动
The canal sat untouched until
直到十年后罗斯福成功当选
Theodore Roosevelt was elected a decade later.
他确信如果美国海军要快速进入太平洋的话
He was convinced the US Navy needed quick access to the Pacific Ocean
运河是必经之路
and a canal would be the only way.
因此关于是在巴拿马还是尼加拉瓜的论辩又再次被提及
So the Panama versus Nicaragua debate resurfaced,
巴拿马又一次赢了
Panama winning again.
如果不是因为法国人先前的尝试
Though ever hadn’t been for the French attempt.
很可能今天运河就会在尼加拉瓜了
It’s likely the canal today would be at Nicaragua.
但是许多工作都已经开始了
but a lot of the work was already started
并且年轻有雄心的美国无法抗拒
and the young ambitious America couldn’t resist in succeeding
在强大的法兰西失败的地方取得成功
where the mighty French Empire had failed.
一个小问题是
The slight problem was that
巴拿马是为哥伦比亚所有的一个地区
Panama was a region of and owned by Colombia.
但是美国政府拒绝签订任何
But the US refused to sign any treaty where they
他们对运河没有完全主权的条约
didn’t have complete sovereignty over the canal zone, and
而哥伦比亚也不愿放弃该地区
Colombia weren’t willing to give that up.
1903年 哥伦比亚陷入政治动荡
In 1903 Colombia was in political unrest
因此 美国政府就直接和巴拿马谈了
so the US turned to Panama directly…
嘿 巴拿马 你想独立吗
Psssttt… Panama! Do you wanna be a new country?
如果你们要闹革命
If you were to have a revolution
我们不会 不用我们的军舰保护你们 /调皮微笑
We wouldn’t not protect you with our massive warships ; )
嗯 好吧
Yeah, sure.
巴拿马与美国签订了条约并承诺
And Panama signed a treaty giving America total control
在独立后会将运河的控制权交给美国
over the canal once they became independent.
许多人对美国干预巴拿马的做法并不满意
A lot of people weren’t happy with the US
因此罗斯福让检察长诺克斯
intervention at Panama, so Roosevelt asked Attorney General
做出了如下辩护
Knox to form a legal defense.
“亲爱的总统阁下 不要因为这么一点的不合法
“Ah Mr. President, do not let so great an achievement
让如此之大伟大的功绩无法服务于大众”
suffer from any taint of legality”
1904年 工程开始
In 1904 work began.
以约瑟夫和诺贝尔为主导的美国计划
The US plan by Joseph Ripley and Alfred Noble would be an adaptation
改进于25年前的戈丹方案
of de Lépinay’s from 25 years earlier.
他们在两端沿海修了许多水闸
A series of locks on either ocean
将船舶提升到海拔26米
to raise ships 26 meters above sea level.
然后在查格雷斯河上筑堤 让其淹没巴拿马中部的大片区域
And then dam the Chagres river to flood huge areas of central Panama.
164平方英里的丛林 城镇和铁路消失在了水下
164 square miles of jungle, town and railroad would be lost underwater.
加顿湖就此诞生 而查格雷斯河
Creating Gattun lake. The Chagres River, so
本来是海平面通道的障碍
difficult and obstacle for a sea-level passage, would
现在变成了锁渠的生命线
become the lifeline of the lock canal – feeding
其水源源不断地流进锁渠
it with a constant water supply.
但其所需的工程量仍然是巨大的
Yet the engineering required would still be immense.
工程仍需穿过库莱布拉山脉
The Culebra mountains must still be cut through.
而就像其巨大的水闸一样 加通大坝
Gatun dam would have to be one of the largest in the world.
也成为了世界上最大的大坝之一
As would the locks themselves.
1906年 罗斯福参观此地 并成为了美国历史上
Roosevelt himself visited in 1906 becoming the first
第一位在位期间离开本国的总统
president to leave the country while in office.
没有镐和铲子 美国人带来的是炸药
Not resigned to pickaxe and shovel the Americans brought dynamite with them.
这项工程不是单纯的挖掘 它还包括土的运输
The project became not one of digging but of Earth removal.
这就意味着数英里持续不断的铁路运输
And this meant miles and miles of continuously moving railroads.
卫生保健 住宿以及食物在这里也都有提供
Health care, accommodation and food were all provided for.
政府运营旅馆商店获取的稳定利润
Government run hotels and shops were making a steady profit, while
也都被用来补贴运河工人的费用
subsidizing the expenses of Canal workers.
国内的报纸警告说
Papers back home warned
那些向社会主义发展的美国人
of the political threat these people would be when they returned.
回国后将面临政治威胁
Americans who had thrived into socialism.
但如果你去巴拿马寻找社会主义的乌托邦
But if you’d gone to Panama looking for a socialist utopia.
那你可能会失望
You’d have been disappointed.
因为那里并没有所谓的共享所有权和民主
There was no shared ownership or democracy in action.
而且你最好是个白人
And you’d better have been white.
因为种族隔离仍然存在于各行各业
Because segregation still existed in all walks of life.
据估算
An estimated
有20万人从加勒比海迁移过来
200,000 people migrated from the Caribbean,
他们充当了绝大多数的劳工
making up the vast majority of the workforce.
提供给黑人劳工的是糟糕的食宿条件
Black workers were given appalling food and accommodation, if any at all.
单身汉往往居住在沿着运河线改装的棚车里
Single men often lived in converted boxcars along the canal line,
而有家庭的人也不得不在巴拿马城 或科隆
and families were forced to fend for themselves
抑或在丛林中自生自灭
in Colon, Panama City or the jungle.
尽管医疗安全取得了一定进展
Despite all the medical and safety advancements
但黑人劳工的死亡率
made a black worker was four times
仍然是白人劳工的四倍
more likely to die than a white worker.
他们往往是被掉落的岩石砸到 或被卷入机器中
Being struck by falling rock caught in machinery or
还有的是被炸药炸得四分五裂
blown apart by dynamite.
花费了33年 移走了1.8亿立方米的土块
33 years, 180 million cubic meters
成立了一个新国家
of earth, a new country and
和失去了2万7千人的生命
27,000 lives later.
运河最终完工了
The canal was finished.
1914年8月3日
It’s completion book marked the end
克里斯托瓦尔号首次完成跨洋航行
of a global era, on August the 3rd 1914,
这也标志着一个全球时代的结束
the Cristobal made the first ocean to ocean crossing.
但在巴拿马并没有大张旗鼓的庆祝
But there was no fanfare or celebration in Panama
就在那天夜幕降临的时候
As night fell that same day,
半个地球之外
half a (now slightly smaller) world away
德国向法国宣战了
Germany declared war on France.
而贸易 政治和权力也再也不会是之前那样了
Trade, politics, and power would never be the same again.
1914年之后
Post 1914
在随后的一些年里 它已经变成了全球航行的生命线
In the coming years it became a lifeline of global travel.
有5%的全球贸易都要穿过这里
5% of all world trade passes through the canal.
而其政治和金融的重要性
It’s political and financial
更是难以估计
importance became hard to overestimate.
美国与巴拿马之间的关系也越来越紧张
Tensions between the US and Panama continued to rise.
巴拿马人认为运河的控制权应当属于他们
Panamanians believed that control of the canal was rightfully theirs.
在美国向英法施加压力
After the US pressured the UK and France
让其放弃对苏伊士的主权后
to give up their claim to Suez,
巴拿马人更是把他们看作伪君子
many in Panama saw this as hypocritical.
在整个六十年代都充斥着骚乱和死亡
There were riots and deaths throughout the sixties,
这给美国带来了巨大的国际压力
building international pressure on the US.
1977年 卡特签署了一项条约
In 1977 Jimmy Carter signed a treaty granting Panama
只要运河保持永久中立
future ownership and control of the canal, as
他们将授予巴拿马对运河的所有权
long as it remained in neutral waterway.
卡特:“对于在1903年起草的巴拿马运河条约
Carter:”Your own strong feelings about the Panama Canal Treaty of 1903.”
你们的不满情绪
“Drafted in a world so different from ours today.”
已经成为改善拉美关系的障碍”
“Has become an obstacle to better relations with Latin America.”
在1989年美国推翻将军诺列加之后
After a quick US invasion in’89 to overthrow general Noriega.
20世纪的最后一天
The Panama Canal
巴拿马运河
officially became the property of Panama,
终于正式回到了祖国的怀抱
on the last day of the 20th century.
但是到那时
But by then it had started to become more
建造比运河更大的货船航行环过合恩角
economical to build ships larger than the canal and
则变得更加经济划算
start sailing around Cape Horn again.
2007年 巴拿马开始扩展运河
In 2007 Panama began expansion of their canal, two
两套新水闸在与旧水闸平行处拔地而起
new sets of locks were built parallel to the old ones,
增加了它的最大规模和容量
increasing the maximum size and capacity.
扩展本身就是一个耗资巨大的项目
The expansion itself was a massive project,
几乎花费了和美国一样长的时间
taking almost as long as the Americans did.
因此是谁建造的运河这个问题变得复杂起来
So the issue of who built the canal is complicated.
美国雇用爱尔兰和中国劳工修建了铁路
It was the US that built the railroads with Irish and Chinese workers.
法国人雇用印第安和牙买加人挖了5000万立方米的岩石
The French excavated 50 million cubic meters of rock with Indians and Jamaicans.
美国雇用加勒比和中美洲工人完成了该项目
The US finished the project using Caribbean and Central American workers.
然而 你今天实际看到的大部分运河[基础设施]都是由巴拿马人建造的
Yet most of the canal [infrastructure] you actually see today was built by Panamanians.
它往往被认为是一个国家的成就
Yet it would be remembered as the achievement of a single president,
但实际上它是在几个国家的共同努力下完成的
while actually completed under several others,
他们都站在了前人的肩膀上
all while standing on the shoulders of other nations.
人类进步就要有超越时代的规模和野心
Human progress requires scale and ambition that exceeds generations.
而不仅仅是在他们的时代
Not just terms of office.
这条运河以及随后的项目
This canal and later projects were built
是在许多跨大洲国家和人民的努力下完成的
by many people and nations working together across continents.
有时要花费几个世纪
And sometimes centuries.
Human Interest现在有一个打赏页了
Human Interests now has a Patreon page. At the moment
目前我只能每几月发一个视频
I can only put out a video every few months
因为我只能在业余时间打理频道
as I have to fit the channel around my job.
但是在你们的支持下 我会定期推出视频
But with your help I’d love to make them a more regular thing.
你们可以看一下视频 会展示包括如何打赏
Check out the video explaining how patreon works and some
以及如果订阅量增多我会做什么样题材的视频
of the things I want to do if the channel gets bigger.
如果你们没有钱打赏这个频道 – 这也无关紧要
If you can’t afford to support the channel financially – that’s absolutely fine.
因为这些视频永远都会免费开放给大家
These videos will always be freely available to everybody.
感谢你们的订阅
Thank you for subscribing.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频介绍了巴拿马运河的修建历史,以及各国家为此付出的巨大代价。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

这里曾经有风声

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WR_hCMR2Xvc

相关推荐