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怎样识别种族主义者? – 译学馆
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怎样识别种族主义者?

Who Are the Racists?

一直以来某些左派的知名人物
Every single day someone of prominence on the left
——政治家 电视新闻主持人 娱乐人物——
—a politician, a cable news host, an entertainment figure
控诉右派的一些人是种族主义者
—accuses someone on the right of being a racist.
以下是一些典型例子:
Here are typical examples:
MSNBC主持人克里斯·马修斯说
MSNBC host Chris Matthews said this:
“黑人歧视时代的人们
“ The age of Jim Crow managed to find a new habitat
在21世纪的共和党派找到了一席之地”
in the… 21st-century Republican Party.”
喜剧演员赛斯·梅尔斯告诉他的深夜秀的观众
Comedian Seth Meyers told his late-night audience that Republicans traffic “
共和党派在进行公开种族歧视的交易
in open racism. ”
一位田纳西州的州议员 身为黑人女性的
Tennessee state representative London Lamar,
London Lamar宣称整个田纳西州
a black woman, announced that the entire state
都是“种族主义者的地带”
of Tennessee is “racist. Period.”
这是她刚当选田纳西州州议员之后说的!
This was just after she was elected… inTennessee!
左派称右派为种族主义者不是新鲜事
The left calling the right racist isn’t new.
这已经持续了几十年
It’s been going on for decades.
共和党派总统理查德·尼克松
Republican Presidents Richard Nixon,
罗纳德·里根 老布什 还有他的儿子小布什
Ronald Reagan, George Herbert Walker Bush, his son
都被控诉是种族主义者
George W. Bush were all accused of being racists.
当然 少数观点认为
And of course, from the less perspective,
“种族主义者”基本上是唐纳德·特朗普的中间名
“racist” is essentially Donald Trump’s middle name.
称一个人为种族主义者是个很严重的指控
To call someone a racist is a very seriouscharge.
种族主义者是那些相信
A racist is a person who believes
某个种族生来就高于或低于其他人的人
that one race is inherently superior or inferior to another.
他们不靠智力 性格或能力来判断一个人的个人价值;
It’s not intelligence, character or valuesthat determine an individual’s worth;
而是靠他或她的肤色
it’s his or her skin color.
说种族歧视是可笑的 愚蠢的 更别提是邪恶的
To say that racism is foolish and stupid—not
是没有意识到这个问题本身的严重性
to mention evil—is to understate the case.
但在大部分民主党看来 共和党是那么愚蠢那么邪恶
But according to most Democrats, Republicans are that stupid and that evil. So,
所以让我们来调查一些保守派的政策
let’s examine some conservative policies to see
看看他们是否确实是种族主义者
if they are, indeed, racist.
如果他们是 那么左派的控诉是合理的
If they are, then the left has a valid complaint.
如果他们不是 那么左派就是在撒谎
And if they’re not, then the left is lying.
保守派对平权法案的长期反对是一个好的切入点
The longstanding conservative opposition to Affirmative Action is a good place to start.
虽然民主党总统肯尼迪在1961年
It was Democratic president John F. Kennedy who, in 1961,
第一次用到“平权法案”这个词语
first used the term “ affirmative action. ”
但直到1970年 在共产党总统
But Affirmative Action in the way we think
理查德·尼克松执政期间
of it now wasn’t implemented until 1970,
我们现在认为的平权法案才得以实施
during the administration of a Republicanpresident, Richard Nixon.
原理是这样的
The theory was that,
因为历史上的歧视 相比于其他人种和民族
because of historical discrimination, blacks were at a competitive
黑人处于竞争的劣势
disadvantage to other races and ethnicities.
为了消除这种劣势
To erase that disadvantage,
大部分黑人可能无法达到的标准必须被降低
standards that most blacks presumably couldn’t meet had to be lowered.
有人可能会说
One could make the case
这项政策在最初实施时有一定的效用
that this policy had some utility when it was first put in place.
但那是很久以前的事了
But that was a long time ago.
保守派的立场是
The conservative position is
黑人已经多次证明了就算没有降低标准的优势
that blacks have repeatedly proven they can compete with anyone
他们也能和其他人公平竞争
without the benefits of lower standards.
黑人在各个领域 各个层次取得成功的例子数不胜数
There are countless examples of black success in every field, at every level.
这个政策已经没有必要了
The policy is no longer necessary.
但保守派论据还没完
But the conservative argument goes further.
一项又一项的研究证明
Study after study shows that,
在大学录取问题上
in the case of college admissions, affirmative action
比起帮助黑人 平权法案反而伤害了更多黑人
hurts more blacks than it helps.
学校降低对黑人(和其他一些少数族裔学生)的入学门槛
By lowering admissions standards for blacks (and some other minority students),
让许多学生一进校园就注定失败
colleges set many of these students up for failure.
因为他们被放在一些他们不能适应的学校
They get placed in schools for which they are not prepared.
他们的高退学率也证明了这一点
And high black dropout rates confirm this view.
其他情况下会怎样呢?
How could it be otherwise?
如果学业上不达标的白人学生被长春藤盟校录取
If academically unprepared white students were admitted to Ivy League schools,
他们也同样 会走向失败
they too, would be set up to fail.
保守派坚信黑人及其他少数族裔
Conservatives believe blacks and other minorities
与白人一样有能力取得成功
are every bit as capable as whites of succeeding
成为工程师 外科医生 警察
as engineers, surgeons, policemen,
商人 律师和大学生
businessmen, lawyers, and college students.
所以 对黑人降低标准是不必要的 也是一种侮辱
And therefore, lowering standards for blacks is unnecessary as well as insulting.
然而因为这种观点 保守派也被称为种族主义者
Yet for this belief, conservatives are called racist.
当然 讽刺的是
The irony, of course,
那些控诉保守派是种族歧视的人
is that those who accuse conservatives of being racist
却坚信黑人和其他少数族裔
believe blacks and other minorities are not
需要平权法案 因为他们没有办法像白人一样成功
as capable as whites of succeeding and therefore still need
距法案第一次实施已近半个世纪了
affirmative action—almost a half-century after it was first implemented.
让我们看看保守派和控诉保守派种族歧视的人
Let’s look at another issue where this contrast
之间的另一个问题
between conservatives and those who accuse
甚至更加尖锐:选举证件
them of being racist is even more starklydrawn: voter ID.
保守派说美国应该在选举时
Conservatives say America should require every voter to
让每个人出示证件
present an ID when voting, just as
就像欧洲国家做的那样 以此保证选举公正
European countries do to help keep their electionshonest.
这些民主党派的人都是种族主义者吗?
Are all these democracies racist?
当然不是
Of course not.
但控诉者说支持选举身份制的保守派是种族主义者
Yet the accusers say that conservatives who support voter ID are racist.
为什么他们这么说呢?
Why do they say this?
因为 他们认为
Because they argue,
这是个阻止黑人和其他少数族裔投票的诡计
it’s really a ruse to prevent blacks and other minorities from voting
因为他们中的大部分人都没办法获得一个证件
since many of them just aren’t capable of acquiring an ID.
你能比这更有优越感吗?
Can you get more condescending than that?
让我们现实一些
Let’s be real.
你需要证件才能开车 坐飞机 买啤酒
You need an ID to drive, to fly, to buy a beer,
甚至去买一些感冒药
even to purchase some cold medicines.
为什么白人可以 但黑人却不行
Whites can do it, but blacks can’t?
再告诉我一遍谁是种族主义者?
Tell me again who the racists are?
再举一个例子:
One more example:
是保守派推行择校
it’s conservatives who push for school choice,
允许所有父母 不只是富人
which would allow all parents, not just wealthy ones,
去决定他们的孩子去哪个学校
to decide where their children attend school.
学费券 特许学校——这些都是保守派的举措
Tuition vouchers, charter schools—these are conservative initiatives.
但左派人士却处处反对这些改革
Those on the left fight these reforms at every turn.
是左派人士不相信少数族裔父母
It’s the left that doesn’t trust minority parents
能为他们自己的孩子选到合适的学校
to select an appropriate school for their children.
为什么让黑人孩子不能上学的人
Why aren’t the people who keep black children
不是种族主义者呢?
in failing schools the racists?
有时候 可能你会像我一样 开始问自己:
At some point, maybe you’ll start asking yourself, like I did
是谁真正痴迷于种族问题
Who’s really obsessed with race?
左派还是右派?
The left or the right?
还有是谁的政策真正伤害了黑人?
And whose policies really hurt blacks?
也许不是你认为的那一方
Maybe it’s not who you think it is.
我是普拉格大学21计划的Derryck Green
I’m Derryck Green of Project 21 for Prager University.

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左派和右派对种族政策的不同态度能说明什么?

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