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哲学的质问:我是谁?

Who am I? A philosophical inquiry - Amy Adkins

Throughout the history of mankind,
在人类的历史中
three little words have sent poets to the blank page,
有三个字使诗人难以下笔
philosophers to the Agora,
使哲学家聚众讨论
and seekers to the oracles:
使探索者寻求神谕:
“Who am I?”
这三个字就是“我是谁?”
From the ancient Greek aphorism inscribed on the Temple of Apollo,
从刻在阿波罗神庙的古希腊警句 :
“Know thyself,”
“了解你自己”
to The Who’s rock anthem, “Who Are You?”
到现代摇滚乐队THE WHO的摇滚名曲《你是谁》
philosophers, psychologists, academics,
哲学家 心理学家 学者
scientists, artists, theologians and politicians
科学家 艺术家 神学家 政治家
have all tackled the subject of identity.
都曾为这个有关身份的问题绞尽脑汁
Their hypotheses are widely varied and lack significant consensus.
他们的假设五花八门 缺乏有意义的共识
These are smart, creative people,
这些可都是充满智慧和创造力的人
so what’s so hard about coming up with the right answer?
那么得到一个正确的答案为何如此困难呢?
One challenge certainly lies
其中一个挑战就在于
with the complex concept of the persistence of identity.
身份一致性这个概念的复杂特质:
Which you is who?
“你是谁?” 指哪个你?
The person you are today?
是今天的你?
Five years ago?
五年前的你?
Who you’ll be in 50 years?
还是五十年后的你?
And when is “am”?
“是”指的是什么时间?
This week?
是你这一周?
Today?
今天?
This hour?
这一小时?
This second?
还是就眼前这一秒呢?
And which aspect of you is “I”?
还有 你的哪个部分才是真正的“你”呢?
Are you your physical body?
你的肉体?
Your thoughts and feelings?
你的思想和情感?
Your actions?
还是你的行为?
These murky waters of abstract logic are tricky to navigate,
这些抽象逻辑的问题很棘手
and so it’s probably fitting that to demonstrate the complexity,
所以用它来展示复杂性是很合适的
the Greek historian Plutarch used the story of a ship.
希腊历史学家普鲁塔克引用了一条船的故事
How are you “I”?
你怎么是“我”?
As the tale goes, Theseus, the mythical founder King of Athens,
故事是这样的:传说创立了雅典的王 忒修斯
single-handedly slayed the evil Minotaur at Crete,
单枪匹马地到克里特屠杀了弥诺陶洛斯
then returned home on a ship.
然后乘船而归
To honor this heroic feat,
为了纪念这一壮举
for 1000 years Athenians painstakingly maintained his ship in the harbor,
雅典人一千年来不辞辛苦地在港口维护他的船
and annually reenacted his voyage.
每年重演他的航行
Whenever a part of the ship was worn or damaged,
只要船的一部分出现了损坏
it was replaced with an identical piece of the same material
雅典人就用一样的材料做出一块相同的来替补
until, at some point, no original parts remained.
直到某一刻 船上再没有原来的部分留下
Plutarch noted the Ship of Theseus
普鲁塔克认为 忒特斯的这艘船
was an example of the philosophical paradox
就是一个哲学悖论的范例
revolving around the persistence of identity.
它体现了身份一致性这个难题
How can every single part of something be replaced,
如果一件东西的每个部分都被替换了
yet it still remains the same thing?
它怎么还会是同一件东西呢?
Let’s imagine there are two ships:
让我们想象一下有两艘船:
the ship that Theseus docked in Athens, Ship A,
船A是忒勒斯停泊在雅典的那艘
and the ship sailed by the Athenians 1000 years later, Ship B.
船B则是一千年后 雅典人航行的那艘
Very simply, our question is this: does A equal B?
那么很简单 我们的问题就是船A等于船B吗?
Some would say that for 1000 years there has been only one Ship of Theseus,
有人会说 一千年来 忒勒斯的船只有这一艘
and because the changes made to it happened gradually,
而且那艘船逐渐进行了改造
it never at any point in time stopped being the legendary ship.
在任何时间 它都是那艘传奇中的船
Though they have absolutely no parts in common,
虽然船A与船B完全没有相同的部分
the two ships are numerically identical, meaning one and the same,
但它们数目一致 也就是说 它们是唯一且一样的
so A equals B.
所以 船A等于船B
However, others could argue that Theseus never set foot on Ship B,
然而 也有人会说 忒勒斯从未在船B上待过
and his presence on the ship is an essential qualitative property
他是否在船上出现
of the Ship of Theseus.
是忒修斯船的本质属性
It cannot survive without him.
如果没有他 那这艘船就不存在
So, though the two ships are numerically identical,
所以 虽然这两艘船的数目一致
they are not qualitatively identical.
但是 它们的性质不同
Thus, A does not equal B.
所以 船A不等于船B
But what happens when we consider this twist?
但让我们想象一下 下面这个问题?
What if, as each piece of the original ship was cast off,
如果 当船A替换掉旧的部分时
somebody collected them all, and rebuilt the entire original ship?
有人把它们都收集起来 然后用它们重造出原来的那艘船呢?
When it was finished, undeniably two physical ships would exist:
当这艘船完工的时候 毫无疑问 将会有两艘船:
the one that’s docked in Athens,
一艘停泊在雅典的海岸
and the one in some guy’s backyard.
另一艘在某人的后院
Each could lay claim to the title, “The Ship of Theseus,”
两艘船可以都号称:“忒勒斯的船”
but only would could actually be the real thing.
但只有一艘可以是真正的那艘
So which one is it,
那么是哪一艘呢
and more importantly, what does this have to do with you?
而且更重要的是 这跟你自己有什么关系呢?
Like the Ship of Theseus,
你 就像忒勒斯之船
you are a collection of constantly changing parts:
是由一些不断变化的各部分组成的:
your physical body, mind, emotions, circumstances, and even your quirks,
你的身体 心灵 情感 身体状况 甚至你的怪癖
always changing, but still in an amazing and sometimes illogical way,
都时刻在变 不过是以一种令人诧异且有时不符逻辑的方式
you stay the same, too.
你还是一样的你
This is one of the reasons that the question, “Who am I?” is so complex.
这就是“我是谁?”这个问题如此复杂的原因之一
And in order to answer it,
可是 为了回答这个问题
like so many great minds before you,
像你之前的许多智者一样
you must be willing to dive into the bottomless ocean of philosophical paradox.
你必须愿意投入哲学悖论的无底海洋
Or maybe you could just answer,
或者也许 你只需要回答:
“I am a legendary hero sailing a powerful ship on an epic journey.”
“我是传奇英雄 在伟大的航行中 驾驶着一艘伟大的船”
That could work, too.
这也算数

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视频概述

我是谁?这是一个值得深究的问题

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHwVyplU3Pg

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