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白沙滩:在鱼屎上晒日光浴

White Sand Beaches: You're Sunbathing on Fish Poop

如果说你想制作一个属于自己的白沙滩
Let’s say you wanted to make yourself a white, sandy beach.
你知道的 就比如在夏威夷或者人们享受豪华假期
Y’know, like the ones in Hawaii or islands in the South Pacific where people take luxurious
并拍下无数照片的南太平洋小岛上的白沙滩
vacations and lots of Instagram photos.
事实证明 制作那种美丽白沙滩非常简单
It turns out, the recipe for that picturesque white sand is pretty simple.
仅包含几个步骤 但只有一个主要成分:便便
There are a couple of steps involved, but just one main ingredient: poop.
首先你需要一个珊瑚礁
The first thing you’ll need is a coral reef
它是沙滩的象征物 而且不幸的是 没有现成的替代品
it’s location-specific and unfortunately there’s no store-bought alternative.
珊瑚礁是由很多珊瑚虫组成的 就是有触角的软囊状生物
Coral reefs are made up of thousands of tiny polyps, which are squishy sacs with tentacles
它们的触角可以刺痛猎物然后捉住他们
that can sting and catch prey.
有点像海葵
Kind of like sea anemones.
这些珊瑚虫有着强健的骨骼 它们产出的结晶
These polyps are anchored to a sturdy skeleton and they make by laying down a crystallized
形成了一种亮白色的叫做霰石的碳酸钙
form of calcium carbonate called aragonite, which is a bright white color.
礁群被证明是海洋的一部分 也被认为是贫瘠没有营养的
Reefs are found in parts of the ocean that are considered to be oligotrophic
就是说它们周围没有很多流动的营养 如磷酸盐或硝酸盐
which means that there aren’t that many tasty nutrients floating around, like phosphate or nitrate.
珊瑚虫不能自行移动 所以如果它们离开了自己的地方
And coral polyps aren’t exactly mobile, so if they were left to their own devices
它们可能会饿死
they might starve.
但是珊瑚虫并非独立成活
But coral polyps aren’t alone.
它们从一种叫做虫黄藻的海藻上获取帮助 这种虫黄藻和
They get help from an algae called zooxanthellae that live symbiotically in their tissues.
它们的组织共生 可以进行光合作用 改变光线 二氧化碳
These algae can photosynthesize, changing sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into food
和食物能量中的水份 然后与珊瑚一起分享巨大的能量
energy, and share a large chunk of that energy with the coral.
随着珊瑚虫得到更多的能量 它们筑造起骨骼并形成礁石
As coral polyps get more energy, they build out their skeletons and grow the reef.
而那些藻类也赋予了珊瑚明亮的色彩
And these algae are also what give coral its bright colors.
如果你有一个繁茂的珊瑚礁 其他的海底生物就会
When you have a thriving coral reef, other undersea plants and animals move in and begin
向它靠近并在它周围形成一整个生态系统
to form a whole ecosystem.
想要得到一个自己的白沙滩 你还需要一些鹦嘴鱼
And to get your white sandy beach, you need some parrotfish.
或者更具体点……它们的便便
Or more specifically… their poop.
鹦嘴鱼因为它们明亮的颜色和奇怪的像鸟一样的嘴巴而得名
Parrotfish get their name for their bright colours and their weird, bird-like beaks.
它们的嘴巴实际上是由一种叫做牙板的融合牙组成的
These beaks are actually made of fused teeth called dental plates, which help them graze
可以帮助获取它们的主要食物来源:海藻
for their main food source: algae.
鹦嘴鱼大部分时间都在刮珊瑚礁
Parrotfish spend their days scraping away at coral reefs
它们吃虫黄藻里面的珊瑚虫和能找到的其他藻类
eating polyps for the zooxanthellae inside, and any other algae they can find.
它们并不是特别谨慎和挑剔
They’re not super careful or picky
so they end up swallowing mouthfuls of calcium carbonate,too
so they end up swallowing mouthfuls of calcium carbonate,too
so they end up swallowing mouthfuls of calcium carbonate,too
所以它们会吞下大量的碳酸钙
so they end up swallowing mouthfuls of calcium carbonate,too
不过并不能吸收其中营养和能量
which they can’t digest for nutrients or energy.
但鹦嘴鱼有一个秘密武器――它们的喉咙藏在其他一组牙齿里
But the parrotfish have a secret weapon—their throats are hiding another set of teeth called
叫做咽颚 可以磨碎珊瑚骨架
pharyngeal jaws that can grind up the coral skeletons.
就像是外星的异形一样…不过确实存在于现实生活中
Like, the xenomorph from Alien… but in real life.
这就使它们的消化系统运行得更加简单
This makes it easier for the chunks to travel through their digestive system.
由此他们把这种碳酸钙排泄出来 形成了这纯净的白色的热带沙子
And they get rid of this calcium carbonate in streams of the purest, whitest tropical sand.
实际上 根据研究 一只鹦嘴鱼一年中可以排泄出
In fact, according to some studies, one parrotfish can poop out around
大约三百千克或更多的沙!
300 kilograms of sand or more in a single year!
在一些洋流搅动周围的一切之后
After some ocean currents stir everything around
你依然有一个属于你自己的完好白沙滩
you have yourself a pristine white sand beach.
一个用来漫步 阳光浴和建造沙滩城堡的绝佳之地…
Perfect for strolling, sunbathing, and building sandcastles…
只要你不那么在意鱼便便
as long as you don’t mind fish poop.
感谢观看这期的SciShow 由我们在Patreon上的赞助人们赞助播出
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, brought to you by our patrons on Patreon.
如果你想要赞助我们的视频 你可以进入pareon.com/scishow.
If you want to help support this show, you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
最后不要忘了去youtube.com/scishow订阅我们的频道哦!
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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视频概述

科普知识,关于如何制作白沙滩,鹦嘴鱼屎的巨大作用

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

灿烂千杨

审核员

审核团Z

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtzKQ9BVj5U

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